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For information and application procedures for visitors to these thematic programs, see http: I / For information and application procedures for postdoctoral fellowships, see http: I j Applications should be sent to: MarieLouise Koskull (kos kull @mi ttag- l effl e r. Correction the August 2005 issue of the Notices carried a list of contact information for major mathematics institutes around the world. Sobolev Institute of Mathematics Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch 4 Koptyug Avenue Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia Telephone: (+7) 3833 33 28 92; Fax: (+7) 3833 33 25 78 email: i m@math. Five students received Ky and Yu-Fen Fan Scholarships, and one student received a Roderick P. Information about the students, the scholarship awards, and the programs they attended follows. She has always liked math, but she credits her math teacher last year ("one of the most outstanding, creative teachers I have ever met") with introducing her to the creative elements of the subject. He is fourteen years old, is in ninth grade, and was the only student in eighth grade to qualify for the Mathematical Olympiad Summer Program this year. Karl is fifteen years old and has graduated from high school; 1220 he is currently attending Northwestern University. Income from the endowment supports mathematics in China and mathematically talented high school students in the United States. Few undergraduates majors pursue further study in mathematics and related fields, and those who do often find the transition to graduate school difficult. To address these problems, some colleges and universities have experimented with new approaches to attract mathematics majors, to mentor them through their undergraduate work, and to help them through the transition from undergraduate to graduate work. New information is printed as it becomes available and is referenced after the first printing. As soon as information is updated or otherwise changed, it will be noted in this section. Contacting the Notices the preferred method for contacting the Notices is electronic mail. Articles include feature articles, memorial articles, communications, opinion pieces, and book reviews. The managing editor is the person to whom to send items for "Mathematics People", "Mathematics Opportunities", "For Your Information", "Reference and Book List", and "Mathematics Calendar". Requests for permissions, as well as all other inquiries, go to the managing editor. The fax numbers are 405-325-7484 for the editor and 401-331-3842 for the managing editor. Where to Find It A brief index to information that appears in this and previous issues of the Notices. December 9, 2005: Applications for visiting and postdoctoral positions at the Fields Institute. January 1, 2006: Submissions for Competition 2006 of the European Mathematical Society. Algebra, Number Theory, and Combinatorics Tomek Bartoszynski 70 3-292-4885 email: tbartosz@nsf. Generally the list will contain only books published within the last two years, though exceptions may be made in cases where current events. Suggestions for books to include on the list may be sent to noti ces-bookl i st@ ams. Chance: A Guide to Gambling, Love, the Stock Market and just About Everything Else, by Amir D. Converging Realities: Toward a Common Philosophy of Physics and Mathematics, by Roland Omnes. Dark Hero of the Information Age: In Search of Norbert Wiener, by Flo Conway and Jim Siegelman. Experimentation in Mathematics: Computational Paths to Discovery, by Jonathan Borwein, David Bailey, and Roland Girgensohn.
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Meanwhile I feel it my duty to oppose his scheme of government in 7 Louisiana, which for the present is defeated in Congress. Senator Wade of Ohio was the only one who blazed a further path toward industrial democracy. He "declared in public meetings that after the abolition of slavery, a radical change in the relations of capital and of property in land is next upon the order of the day. These were the demands of the extreme leaders of abolition-democracy; leaders like Phillips and Douglass agreed with the demand for the ballot. That is the genius of American "The Negro must be given the franchise because timber to build states with, and unless we build postpone reconstruction for so many years, that the very patronage of we have no other with him, we must government would swamp republican institutions. Keep them territories, let the democracy come in eight years or four, with the money power of this bank system in one hand and territorial government in the other, and republican government will be almost territorial a failure. Without this his liberty is a mockery; without this, you might as well almost retain the old name of slavery for his condition; for, in fact, if he is not the slave of the industrial master, he is the slave of society, and holds his liberty as a privilege, not as a right. He said, in 1864, in reply to an English critic, "When was it ever known that liberation from bondage was accompanied by a recognition of political equality? Chattels personal may be instantly translated from the auction-block into freemen; but when were they ever taken at the same time to the ballotbox, and invested with all political rights and immunities? To denounce or complain of President Lincoln for not disregarding public sentiment, and not flying in the face of these laws, is hardly just. Ever since this government frage has been determined by each state in the citithere is no uniformity in regard to zens are allowed to vote; in others, they are not. In other words - be hard to win and to hold without general preparation of feeling and sentiment. Nevertheless the demand for Negro suffrage grew, chiefly because of the necessity of implementing emancipation and making Negro freedom real. The New York Times said in April, 1865: "Nobody, we believe, wishes to keep any Southern state under disabilities simply as punishment. Sumner, himself, probably does not want to transform the Southern states into territories for any such object. The real concern herein is whether the Southern states, if re- stored at once to their full state rights, would not abuse them by an oppression of the black race. This race has rendered an assistance to the government in times of danger that entitles them to its benign care. The government cannot, without the worst dishonor, permit the bond- age of the black man to be continued in any form. It is bound by every moral principle, as well as every prudential consideration, not to remit him to the tender mercies of an enemy. But it is to be hoped that the Southern people will understand that the interests of both races require a just relation between them and that they will secure this by a prompt change of their state constitution and laws. Fidelity to ness of Later, Horace Greeley suffrage only those who or are engaged in some trade. Any standard which could limit the voting privilege to the competent and deserving would be agreeable to us. They cannot hanging some of the late insurgents as rebels and traitors will dispose the survivors toward according the elective franchise even to the most capable of emancipated blacks. In fact the obstacles to such extension of suffrage are many and formidable they are not to be surmounted (though many act as though they could) by a mere order from the War Department, nor even by an act of Congress. In all questions concerning the Union, the national debt, and the future social organization of the South, the feelings of the colored man are naturally in sympathy with the views and aims of the national government. And while the Southern whites fought against the Union, the Negro did all he could to aid it; while the Southern white sees in the national government his conqueror, the Negro sees in it his protector; while the white owes to the national debt his defeat, the Negro owes to it his deliverance; while the white considers himself political and the whole problem of and social reconstruction robbed and ruined by the emancipation of the in it the assurance of future prosperity slaves, the Negro finds and happiness. In all the im- portant issues the the voting body, Negro would be tell led by natural impulse to forward the ends of the government, and by making his influence, as part of upon the legislation of the states, render the in- terference of the national authority less necessary. In the right to vote, he would find the best permanent protection against oppressive class-legislation, as well as against indi- even ties, the relations between the white and black races improved by the gradual wearing off of the present animosiare likely to remain long under the troubling influence of prejuif dice. Such an individual is an object of interest to the political parties that desire to have the benefits of his ballot. It is true, the bringing face to face at the ballot box of the white and the black races may here and there lead to an outbreak of feeling, and the first trials ought certainly to be made while the national power is still there to prevent or repress disturbances; but the practice once successfully inaugurated under the protection of that power, it would probably be more apt than anything else to obliterate old antagonisms, especially if the colored people which is probable, as soon as their a of influence; small as that influence man may - own rights are sufficiently secured -divide their votes between the different political parties. Practical liberty is a good school, and, besides, if any qualification can be found, applicable to both races, which does not interfere with the attainment of the main object, such qualification would in that respect be unobjectionable.
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The distribution 92 of children in the household is almost identical to the full sample. The socioeconomic profile of the regression sample is similar to that of the full sample. Close to 90% of the regression sample has at least a high school level education (College or Higher 31. Approximately 11% have either less than high school level education or no school at all (10. The income distribution is bimodal with more respondents in either the lower income quintiles or the highest income quintile. Approximately one-quarter of the regression sample has annual household incomes in the lowest income quintile (24. Like the full sample, the extended profile describes the food access profile, behavioral profile and weight profile of the regression sample. More than one-third of the regression sample reported experiencing stress about having enough money to pay for a nutritious meal (36. More 93 respondents report daily intake of fruits, vegetables or sugar-sweetened beverages (17. Obesity is the outcome variable in this study, so summary statistics on obese respondents is necessary to illustrate the demographic and socioeconomic profile of this particular group of interest. Table 9 reports the summary statistics for the regression sample, restricted to obese respondents only. This differs from the regression sample because it only includes observations where "owob"=1 and where there are no nonmissing values. Lowest Quintile upper limit $19,999, Second Quintile upper limit $34,999, Third Quintile upper limit $49,999, Fourth Quintile upper limit $74,999, 95 Fifth Quintile lower limit $75,000. The demographic profile for the obese respondents in the regression sample is not a far departure from the demographic profile of all respondents in the regression sample. The average age of obese respondents in the regression sample is 54 years and the majority of obese respondents are women (55. The socioeconomic profile of obese respondents in the regression sample is slightly different from the socioeconomic profile of the full regression sample. While the majority of the full regression sample is college graduates, the majority of obese respondents have high school level graduation. The proportion of obese respondents with some college or college or higher level education are about the same (29. Close to 50% of the obese sample have annual household incomes in the low and second income quintiles (25. The third and fourth income quintiles have 15% of the obese respondents, each (15. The remaining half of the respondents is comprised 96 of retired, not in the workforce or unemployed status (26. Unlike the full regression sample, more obese respondents experience meal stress (38. However, consistent with the full regression sample, approximately 46% of obese respondents live in a state with a general food sales tax (46. Tabulations and Inferential Statistics Cross-tabulations and inferential statistics on key variables serve as preliminary evidence of relationships between obesity and other key variables. The following cross-tabulations illustrate the socioeconomic and demographic profile of obese respondents and respondents with meal stress followed by illustrations of prevalence of meal stress and obesity by group. Lastly, the inferential statistics are preliminary evidence of significant associations between obesity and key variables of interest in this study and address. The following figures illustrate cross-tabulations between socioeconomic and demographic factors and meal stress. The first cross-tabulation illustrates the Figure 6 shows the income profile of respondents that experience meal stress.
Dunn ran away from slavery and finally bought his freedom; he had laid the foundation for a good education before he became free. Dunn "was the only one of the seven colored men who 44 sat in the State Senate in 1868 who had been a slave. He was admitted by the Democrats to be incorruptible: "In the view of the Caucasian chiefs, the taint of honesty, and of a scrupulous regard for the official proprieties, is a serious drawback and enervating reproach upon the Lieutenant-Governor. Pinchback, son of a white man, and himself indistinguishable from white in personal appearance, was born in Georgia, educated in Cincinnati, and had been a captain in the army. Pinchback succeeded and when Warmoth was impeached in December, 1872, Pinchback became for a few days Governor of the state. Menard, a colored man, as one of the representatives of the Lower House and Congress, but he was refused his seat. Politi- cians tried to find something wrong with committee was appointed to his records; and the Aldiger examine the archives of the Treasury. Jones, once chancery clerk of Assumption Parish, was a direct descendant of the hero John Paul Jones of Revolutionary War fame who was captain of the Bonhomme Richard. Several daughters are tors of his 47 now teachers in the New Orleans public schools. In addition there were, between 1868 and 1896, 32 colored state sena- and 95 representatives. These colored leaders had a task of enormous difficulty, much more so than those of South Carolina or Mississippi. Some looked white, some black, some born free and rich, the recipients of good education; some were ex-slaves, with no formal training. Economic and social differences were, in Louisiana, more complicated than in any other American state, and this makes the history of Reconstruction First of all, more difficult to follow. Then there were "the host of traders, capitalists and adventurers, who had come down during and just after the war to seek a new field for investment in the conquered country, who were, naturally, regarded more or less as harpies. Add to these, the scalawags the large number of whites, both planters and others, who became Union men during and after the war. Living close to the subsistence line on the thin soil of the pine hills back of the bottom lands, without schools, with but few churches, given to rude sports and crude methods of farming, their ignorance and prejudice bred in them after the emancipation of the - Negro, a dread of sinking to the social level of the blacks. The dread, in turn, bred hatred, and it was from this class, instigated very probably by the class above them, that the Colfax and Conshatta murders took their unfortunate rise. This class, recruited largely from the descendants of the old overseer and Negrotrader of ante-bellum days, had just enough education to enable them to dazzle the Negro by a political harangue. They became demagogic leaders of the Negroes, on the one hand, and murderers and fighters for the planters. It was this element that more than anything else kept still "And - up the turmoil in the state. In the first legislature, there were said to be 42 Negroes, about half of the House, and seven Negro Senators. The election showed the predominant inis the number of Negroes in the legislature of Louisiana fluence of the carpetbaggers over the Negroes, to who had good reason be convinced of the bad faith of the planters. The Legislature elected in 1868, at the same time I was elected Governor, had but six colored men in the Senate out of its thirty-six members; and though the House of Representatives had more colored men in it than did the Senate, they never constituted more than Only six one-third of the membership. Whatever legislation may have been worthy of criticism during [this] administration was the work of white men in which the Negro members played but a modest part. And these two factions fought to dominate both the poor whites and the Negroes, usually by characteristically different methods. The planters resorted to the old method of cajoling the poor whites, giving them some political and social recognition, and using them as thugs and murderers to carry out their ends. The carpetbaggers flattered Negroes, bribed those whom they could and gave them some recognition, but always at some crucial point broke their promises because they knew the Negro had no choice. Especially in Louisiana the question of social equality between whites and mulattoes was an insistent source of bitter feelings. But the Tribune, leading the "Pure Radicals," said in 1868: "The Republican Party in Louisiana is headed by men, who for the most part are devoid of honesty and decency, and we think it right factions tried to appease the planters Two that the country should know it. Some of these intend, if elected, admit that, but they will to give a share of office to colored men. Five white men and two colored men constituted the ticket, the other colored man being Antoine Dubuclet for treasurer. He and Dunn tried to enforce the test oath, as they were legally bound to do, to the great anger of the rebels, who asked if they were to be excluded "by a nigger" from the seats to which they were elected.
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Over 137 wildfires have raged in the West, costing hundreds of billions of dollars in damages and dozens of lost lives. Do you accept the evidence that carbon dioxide pollution is causing the earth to warm. Although I am not from Texas as the question states, I do believe that the climate is changing and that humans have an impact on the climate. I do believe that the climate is changing and that humans have an impact on the climate. The C02 Coalition 21 is a group that promotes misinformation about climate science. There she described the C02 Coalition as, a "very, very meaningful source [of information]," and said that she is "very hopeful because of organizations like the C02 Coalition. Can you name one Clean Air Act regulation that was promulgated by the Obama Administration- not a voluntary or grant program- that you do support, and why? I did not fully review any of the other regulations and therefore cannot provide an opinion on them. The longer it takes to clean up Superfund projects, the longer the health of children and families who live near these toxic sites are put at risk. Yes, and as a general rule I believe it is important to work with our state partners to provide as much flexibility as the law allows in furthering the goals of cooperative federalism. Do you believe this reflects fair and balanced input from public health and environmental advocacy organizations? I have no knowledge of meetings scheduled, but if confirmed, I commit to meet and listen to all stakeholders. In the final version of the Fourth National Climate Assessment Report (Volume I) (found here: (found here: science2017. You told me in our conversation that when it comes to scientific matter, you would defer to career staff and independent scientists. As a result, many independent scientists were dismissed before they even completed their terms. Do you think it is acceptable for someone who receives money from ExxonMobil or even from a foreign government to serve but not someone who receives a grant from the agency itself? I am not familiar with the specifics of the recent announcement but I do believe it is important to have individuals without conflicts serve on the various boards. You also viewed a three-page memo drafted by Murray to the White House to revive the domestic coal sector. I believe that climate change is real and human activity contributes to climate change. Do you agree with the vast majority of scientists that climate change is real, it is caused by human activity, and that we must aggressively transition away from fossil fuels and toward energy efficiency and sustainable energy like wind, solar, and geothermal? I believe in the use of all forms of energy including wind, solar, geothermal and fossil fuels. Do you agree with the vast majority of scientists that the combustion of fossil fuels contributes to climate change? I believe that climate change is real and that humans have an impact on the climate, which could include actions such as the combustion of fossil fuels. This past year, we have seen unprecedented devastation from hurricanes Harvey, Irma and Maria plus dozens of wildfires that have ravaged the West. Do you believe, as the scientific community does, that climate change contributes to the frequency and devastation of these natural disasters? In your view, how important is it for the United States to reduce our reliance on fossil fuels? I believe that a diverse fuel supply helps ensure reliable and affordable energy resources for jobs and low income families who are most susceptible to fluctuations in energy prices. You previously worked at Murray Energy Corporation, a privately-owned coal company. Do you believe the federal government needs to invest more in polluting, finite fossil fuel resources like coal? I believe that it is important for the federal government to invest in energy research such as clean coal technology and battery storage for renewable energy. However, it is also important for the government, particularly regulatory agencies, to not pick winners and losers absent clear statutory authority from Congress.
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Callendar, like Arrhenius, significantly underestimated future carbon dioxide emissions growth in projecting potential warming. He assumed that fossil fuel production levels in the 1930s would remain constant as efficiency improvements offset rising demand. As a result of that growth in emissions, global average temperatures have increased by 1. Figure 3: Change in Global Average Temperatures Degrees Fahrenheit relative to pre-industrial (1850-1900) levels 3 2. A relatively modest increase in average temperatures is accompanied by a much larger increase in temperature extremes. In the United States, for example, average annual temperatures were 3 percent higher between 1999 and 2019 than between 1950 and 1980. But the number of days above 90°F the average American experienced rose by 23 percent between those two time periods (Figure 4). Heat alone is not nearly as threatening as the combination of increased heat and humidity (referred to as "wet-bulb temperature"). Body temperatures can rise rapidly when heat stress occurs, damaging the brain and other vital organs. Heat stroke, the most severe heat-related illness, can kill or permanently disable its victims without emergency treatment. At wet-bulb temperatures above 79°F (26°C), strenuous physical activity can be dangerous. If wet-bulb temperatures rise above 91°F (33°C), even during rest fit health individuals will have difficulty controlling their core temperature. During the Chicago heat wave of 1995, which resulted in more than 600 excess deaths and 3300 excess emergency room visits (Dematte et al. The highest wet-bulb temperature every recorded on earth was 95°F (35°C), temperatures even very healthy people cannot survive for more than a few hours. Researchers estimate that recent changes in the climate have already expanded the number of people who experience at least one day a year with wet-bulb temperatures above 91°F from 97 million to 275 million, and those exposed to wet-bulb temperatures above 95°F at least once a decade from 0 to 9 million (Li et al. As the climate grows more unstable some parts of the United States and the world are getting dryer, other regions are getting wetter, and a greater share of annual rainfall is occurring during extreme precipitation events. This increases the frequency and severity of surface flooding (pluvial), by overwhelming urban drainage systems, and flooding along streams or rivers (fluvial). That leads to sea level rise both through thermal expansion of the oceans and melting ice sheets around the world. Global average sea levels have risen by 8 to 9 inches since pre-industrial levels, and by more than 3 inches since 1993 alone. Climate change has also increased the frequency and severity of the most extreme storms. Over the past 40 years, the probability that any given hurricane will become a Category 3-5 storm has grown by 8 percent per decade globally, and even higher in the North Atlantic (Kossin et al 2020). For example, scientists estimate that warming over the past four decades increased the probability of the amount of rainfall experienced during Hurricane Harvey in 2017 six-fold (Emanuel 2017). Since we only have one Earth and cannot run controlled experiments, scientists rely on increasingly sophisticated, computerized climate models. First developed in the 1960s through the 1980s, climate models use mathematical formulas to simulate atmospheric and oceanic dynamics. Projections made by some of the earliest climate models have done a remarkably good job of predicting the increase in global average temperatures witnessed over the past few decades (Hausfather et al 2019). Early climate models, however, had very little temporal or geographic granularity. Every six to eight years, these research groups model a harmonized set of emissions scenarios. In a high-emissions scenario, this collection of models predict global average temperature increases of anywhere between 3.
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Response: Both were added as suggested in the revised report How would all the proposed activities be organized and coordinated within the state? Response: An agency in charge of a comprehensive program would clearly need to routinely coordinate with other agencies and interested parties. For state agencies, the California Indoor Air Quality Interagency Working Group serves as a good example of how such coordination might be accomplished. Finally, the state Sustainable Building Task Force and other interagency groups have successfully involved all agencies needed to assess specific issues or to provide input on various projects, and serve as successful prototypes for effective interagency communication and coordination. Chapter 7 Options to Mitigate Indoor Air Pollution (Pages 22-25 and 153-159) this portion of the report advances recommendations about actions that can be taken to improve indoor air quality in general, and in schools in particular. A few observations about this section are worth considering during final revision of the report. Part of the difficulty in effectively responding to the indoor air pollution problem is not only because of a lack of clear authority for the issue within any state agency, but also because of fragmented and incomplete relevant expertise. Take note that the key problems reported in schools could not be addressed merely by effective source control. In addition, effective (and quiet) ventilation systems and proper maintenance are reported to be of importance. The report indicates throughout that ventilation, public education, and other measures are all part of an effective, comprehensive program to reduce indoor pollution. Also, regarding schools, one of the most important problems identified was the elevated levels of formaldehyde, which require source control for effective risk reduction. The indoor environment shares some attributes with ambient air pollution, but it is sufficiently distinct to invite fundamental rethinking of policy approaches, rather than an effort to find the best fit from the current portfolio. Response: this statement was intended to diierentiate from an approach more like the criteria standard-setting approach, in which strict standards are established and must be met. Other Points Methodological issues: When discussing mortality impacts, it is a bit misleading to sum simple deaths across diseases and risk factors. The disturbing issue about exposures to pollution or other risk factors, of course, is actually the premature mortality they cause. Thus, at the least, the term `premature" morality (or deaths) should be the wording. As everyone dies, however, the degree of prematurity is critical, which is why lost-lifeyear measures are becoming more widely used. The committee recognizes that doing so is probably beyond the resources and time available for this report, however. There is a natural tendency to be more concerned with uncontrolled "waste" but we are fooling ourselves if we act as if the material in our house is really under our control or somehow safer because we are still using it. However, public concern is growing as the public becomes more aware of the problem. This is evident in the number of public phone calls we receive from those seeking information, and the large and increasing number of visits to our indoor air quality website. Minor comments l for but We felt this would be used as plural in some places We try to treat `data" and as singular in others. California Air Resources Response: the report will be discussed ~by our Board at their March meeting, to receive Board member comments before it will be finalized and sent to the Legislature. Rather than `much less diluted," it is better to say that indoor emissions are "diluted much more slowly". Response: Some notations were added to figures, and more will be cleaned up for the final version. Another major source of Toformaldehyde and other aldehydes" is environmental tobacco smoke. The executive summary should point to the main body of the report where the estimates are developed. Better to focus on the main ventilation processes: infiltration, natural ventilation, and flow induced by fans (central air, and local exhaust). Swamp coolers have also been associated with increased levels of dust mite allergen in homes. We agree that is can have substantial positive impacts on indoor air, although it was not intended to address indoor air. Control through source reduction is not so simple as reducing total mass emission rates. Toxicity can vary by orders of magnitude among species, and so the toxicity of emissions needs to be factored into any source-control strategy.
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The paper provides a nice but too-brief lesson in morpho¬ logical character analysis by numerical techniques of intraspecific variation and identification of potential phenetic hybrids. Five other papers cover Orthoptera, bees, Sphecids, mea¬ ly bugs, beetles and tiger beetles. Excellent detailed finescale maps of all islands are given in a separate envelope. Even though very well done in this case, there is something psychologically ephemeral about non-typeset work. If your typewriter does not have italic type, underline all words where italics are intended. Name Citations and Systematic Works: the first mention of any organism should include the full scientific name with author (not abbreviated) andyear of description. References: All citations in the text must be alphabetically listed under Literature Cited in the format given in recent issues. If four or less references are cited, please cite in body of text not in Literature Cited. Where used, they should be formulated to a size which will reduce to 4 x 6V2 inches. Allowance should be made for legends beneath, unless many consecutive pages are used. Powell An exceptional case of paternal transmission of the dark form female trait in the tiger swallowtail butterfly, Papilio glaucus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) J. Evans the Phene tics and Comparative Biology of Euphilotes enoptes (Boisduval) (Lycaenidae) from the San Bernardino Mountains Gordon F. Ballmer A New Genus and Species from the Southwestern United States (Noctuidae: Acontiinae) Richard M. Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera 25(3): 157-178,1986(87) Distribution and Abundance of Butterflies in the Urbanization Zones of Porto Alegre, Brazil Alexandre Ruszczyk Av. Maps were drawn showing the urbanization zones of the city, percent of vegetation cover as well as the distribution of 29 butterfly species. The distribution of butterflies in the city showed a life zone pattern very well correlated and oriented with the urbanization gradient. The increase in the urbanization and pollution was accompanied by a decrease in the number of species and indi¬ viduals registered as well as by a homogenization in butterfly distribu¬ tion. In terms of abundance and distribution of its individual elements, the butterfly community of Porto Alegre is consistently structured in accord with the urbanization gradient, represented as distance from the center of the city. The predominance of this parameter is probably due to the fact that this distance is the main conditioner of many variables which are important for butterflies (such as urban climate, percent vegetation cover, air pollution and human density). Species of open areas, with high vagility, nectar feeders and with larvae feeding on exotic cultivated plants are dominant in the city. Introduction Among the more esthetically pleasing animals which inhabit urban ecosystems along with man, birds and butterflies have high ranking. Few authors have attempted to investigate the determinants of but¬ terfly occurrence and non-occurrence in man-made environments; most publications about butterflies in urban areas simply report a list of species found in a given city. The butterflies found in aban¬ doned lots, always the same, were increasing in number and distribu¬ tion while the native and specialized forms were declining. Yamamoto (1977) studied the butterflies of Sapporo (Japan) and found that most of the individuals belonged to a small number of species; a decline in the butterfly fauna paralleled the increase of urbanization. Species of open areas, which hibernate during the pupal stage and reproduce three or more generations per year, were those more resistant to urbanization. Singer & Gilbert (1978) offered some general theoretical con¬ siderations about butterfly ecology in urban environments. Iq this work the entire urban area of Porto Alegre (Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil) was sampled for butterflies. The main objectives were to investi¬ gate butterfly distribution over the urbanization gradient and the influence of habitat variables on butterfly abundance. The region has a temperate-subtropical climate with high humidity and moderate¬ ly high temperatures in the summer. The city is surrounded by agrarian ecosystems to the north, south and east; to the west are found the aquatic ecosystems of Guaiba River (Figure la). Within the city are found only remnants of woods in hard-to-reach places in the southern sector, where urbanization has been partially stopped. A field vegetation, either managed or aban¬ doned, presently predominates on the periphery of the city.
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For example, Aimee Mullins, an athlete, fashion model, and keynote speaker, compared her disability to her shadow, saying, "Sometimes I see a lot of it. Page, the Difference: How the Power of Diversity Creates Better Groups, Firms, Schools, and Societies 41 (2nd ed. Fifth Quadrant Analytics, Sustainable Value Creation Through Disability: the Global Economics of Disability 5 (2013), returnondisability. Behavior-related disabilities sometimes give away people with hidden disabilities who choose not to disclose. These behaviors are not a choice but rather a reflex or a consequence of actively managing symptoms. Because the reason for the behavior (the disability) is non-apparent, bystanders may react by becoming angry, assuming the person chose to engage in unusual or unacceptable behavior even though the real reason for the behavior is hidden. A superior may rightfully discipline another person who shouts in the workplace for being intrusive or unprofessional. In other cases, such as with Autismspectrum disorders, an individual may have difficulty making or sustaining eye contact. In these examples, the people with hidden disabilities are in situations in which they are experiencing distress, causing the symptoms of their disabilities to become apparent. The person with the disability is then forced to simultaneously find relief from the stressor and decide whether to disclose his disability to someone who reacting angrily while he feels vulnerable; he may make a joke to assuage bystanders or in some other way brush the incident aside until, of course, it happens again. Disclosure, advocacy, and education are the only permanent solutions to this conundrum, but whether they are effective depends largely on the receptivity of the audience and the culture of the firm. The overall experience of being a person with a disability is that of having an additional responsibility. Likening this responsibility to carrying a big box, it is hard to argue that if we saw one of our colleagues working to carry such a box-such a responsibility-that we would not help that colleague by offering to take a corner. The culture in most law firms that do not include disability status in their diversity programs, however, does not allow us to see which colleagues may be carrying an additional responsibility. Thus, this culture does not afford us the opportunity to offer our assistance, limiting our ability to create community and inclusion in our firm culture and leaving the responsibility with the individual. Because our current definitions of disability are based on a model of limitation, loss of function, or incapacity, many of us do not realize that some people with disabilities feel their condition does not constitute something lost but that they have gained something to which others are not privileged. A person who is deaf (with a lower case d) is someone who experiences hearing loss. A person who is Deaf (with a capital D) identifies as being part of the Deaf community, with his or her own culture, language, and social norms. The protocol for keeping a conversation private has evolved differently by necessity. This is changing now thanks to Deaf teenagers who will sign a remark and indicate that they were being sarcastic by raising one eyebrow and scrunching their lips together mimicking stupidity. Consider the concept of color from the viewpoint of someone who has been blind since birth. Those of us who are sighted use color euphemisms for a lot of things that have nothing to do with color. A good practice for any interactions where you feel unsure how to proceed is to ask how the person prefers to move forward. If they ask you to do something different, it is not a criticism or something to be embarrassed about; you can just say, "Oh, thank you for telling me. The sky and the ocean are blue, but we also may say of a sad person that he is blue or has the blues. To further add to the confusion, the ocean is blue because bodies of water are blue, but a glass of water is colorless. People who are blind from birth have adapted to these sayings and understand the intent despite never having had the experience of color. Disability Etiquette the first step in becoming an ally for people with disabilities is to learn how to think and talk about disabilities. Similar to how the phrase "colored people" evolved to become people of color to emphasize their personhood over their skin color, we no longer use the term "disabled people" but rather people with disabilities. People may use the term "Handicapped" to refer to parking spaces, accessible restrooms, and the like, but we no longer use it to refer to people.