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The coding dictionary was updated and coding processes were clarified to reflect these recommendations. Debrief and Notes documents were divided into even and odd documents; each analyst coded either even or odd numbered documents. Comparison of the two revealed a lack of notable difference among Notes and Debrief documents. Analysts determined the relative frequency with which each code was applied to the entire dataset. This information told us which codes and subjects were mentioned most frequently, and a secondary analysis was conducted to explore the content of the passages that were coded with these dominant codes. For example, Access to Resources/Care was the most frequently used code, but was frequently coded in tandem with Physical Health/Dental/Vision and Resources/Coordination of Services. To understand this relationship, we developed queries of quotes coded with these three topics, which provided details regarding how physical health related access to resources/care and coordination of services. In an effort to elevate the voice of priority populations, analysis was also completed separately for specific priority populations. Sessions that were predominantly Latino, African American, immigrant and refugee (excluding Latino), and Native American/Alaska Native were analyzed separately from the other sessions and compared/contrasted to the overall listening session data. Findings A total of 29 listening sessions were held at 20 organizations, with the voices of 364 community member participants. Demographic information provided by participants during listening sessions is noted in Appendix F. Page 77 Participants were asked to respond to questions regarding their vision of an ideal healthy community, as well as the strengths and needs that currently exist within their own community. The paragraphs that follow are the most dominant themes expressed in a collective voice throughout the listening sessions. Vision Within the Vision domain people expressed what they believed makes up a healthy community. They were asked, "What makes a healthy community" and "How can you tell when your community is healthy? They viewed health holistically, encompassing mental, emotional, spiritual, physical, and even financial wellness. Participants suggested a healthy balance in all of these areas was conducive to physical health. Participants described a healthy community as one where "you know your neighbors," where people smile and say hello, where people talk to one another, and where all members feel a sense of belonging. They envisioned a community where members acknowledged their interdependence and where the community had a role in governance. According to the listening sessions, participation and collaboration were two key elements to a healthy community. In terms of participation, respondents described a healthy community as one where citizens participate in community activities. In terms of collaboration, participants thought it was important to support and help one another. Participants expressed that a healthy community ensures all voices are heard, without judgment or discrimination. Inclusiveness and acceptance is important and participants specifically mentioned race, immigration status, gender, and sexual orientation. One participant expressed that in a healthy community "people feel power to express themselves and the leaders are listening and valuing our input. When participants spoke about basic needs they referenced clothing, food, jobs, and housing. The collective voice was especially concerned about access to affordable housing for everyone. Participants viewed a healthy Page 78 community as one where everyone has access to these essential things. One participant summarized this topic saying: "A healthy community is one where a large percentage of people in the community have access to the material resources they need to be healthy. Affordability was expressed by participants as a necessary component of access to physical and behavioral health care. Participants also expressed that in a healthy community people clearly understand how to access these types of care, and have the resources to do so on their own. It was important, especially among African American participants, that people be able to take care of their own physical, mental, and spiritual needs, with access to knowledge pertaining to these services.

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Expansion of an existing open heart surgery service beyond the one-time incremental increase of one open heart unit shall only be approved if the service has operated at a minimum use rate of 70 percent of capacity for each of the past two years and can project a minimum of 200 procedures per year in the new open heart surgery unit. The application shall include standards adopted or to be adopted by the service, consistent with current medical practice as published by clinical professional organizations, such as the American College of Cardiology or the American Heart Association, defining high-risk procedures and patients who, because of their conditions, are at high risk and shall state whether high-risk cases are or will be performed or high-risk patients will be served. Open heart surgery services should be staffed by a minimum of two physicians licensed by the State of South Carolina who possess the qualifications specified by the governing body of the facility. In addition, standards should be established to assure that each physician using the service will be involved in adequate numbers of applicable types of open heart surgery and therapeutic cardiac catheterizations to maintain proficiency. The open heart surgery service will have the capability for emergency coronary artery surgery, including: a. These high-risk procedures should only be performed with open heart surgery backup. The cardiac team must be promptly available and capable of successfully operating on unstable acute ischemic patients in an emergency setting. The Department encourages all applicants and providers to share their outcomes data with appropriate registries and research studies designed to improve the quality of cardiac care. An applicant for open heart surgery service agrees, as a condition for issuance of its Certificate of Need for such service, to discontinue services and surrender the Certificate of Need for that service if they have failed to achieve 200 open heart procedures per open heart unit per year by the expiration of the first three years of operation of such services. One time incremental expansions of one open heart unit are subject to the same threshold, and any such unit shall be closed if it does not achieve 200 open heart procedures within three years of the expansion. The expansion of an existing open heart surgery service beyond the incremental expansion described above shall only be approved if the service has operated at a minimum use rate of 70 percent of capacity, overall, for each of the past two years and can project a minimum of 200 procedures per year in the new open heart surgery units. The applicant shall document the other service providers, if any, from which these additional patients will be drawn. Community Need Documentation; Distribution (Accessibility); Ability to Complete the Project; Cost Containment; Record of the Applicant; Staff Resources; and Adverse Effects on Other Facilities. Research has shown a positive relationship between the volume of open heart surgeries performed annually at a facility and patient outcomes. Thus, the Department establishes minimum standards that must be met by a hospital in order to provide open heart surgery. Specifically, a hospital is required to project a minimum of 200 open heart surgeries annually within three years of initiation of services. This number is considered to be the minimum caseload required to operate a program that maintains the skill and efficiency of hospital staff and reflects an efficient use of an expensive resource. The Department further recognizes that the number of open heart surgery cases is decreasing and that maintaining volume in programs is very important to the provision of quality care to the community. The benefits of improved accessibility will not outweigh the adverse effects of duplication in evaluating Certificate of Need applications for this service. South Carolina Heart Center catheterization lab now controlled by Providence Health and reported in their utilization. Approved July 25, 2016 for addition of a single diagnostic cardiac catheterization lab for a total of one diagnostic cardiac catheterization lab. The most common types of cancer include prostate cancer for men, breast and uterine cancer for women, whereas lung and colon cancer are a common occurrence in both genders. The Department tracks the occurrence of cancer in the State, including identification of "cancer cluster" locations, through the South Carolina Central Cancer Registry. Megavoltage radiation has been utilized for decades as a standard modality for cancer treatment. It is best known as Radiation Therapy, but is also called Radiotherapy, X-Ray Therapy, or Irradiation. Beams of ionizing radiation are aimed to meet at a specific point and deliver radiation to that precise location. The amount of radiation used is measured in "gray" (Gy) and varies depending on the type and stage of cancer being treated. Radiation damages both cancer cells and normal cells, so the goal is to damage as many cancer cells as possible, while limiting harm to nearby healthy tissue. A typical course of treatment lasts for two to ten weeks, depending on the type of cancer and the treatment goal. Relevant Definitions There are varying types of radiation treatment, and definitions are often used interchangeably.

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She has been undergoing cervical cancer screening every year for the past 18 years with no abnormal pap smears recorded. Thus, it seems unlikely that the pelvic examination, a much less sensitive test, would be able to have any impact on mortality. Reality · Most mammograms and pap smears are obtained during preventive gynecological examinations. At this time, this recommendation is based on expert opinion, and limitations of the internal pelvic examination should be recognized. Screening Pelvic Examinations in Asymptomatic, AverageRisk Adult Women: An Evidence Report for a Clinical Practice Guideline from the American College of Physicians. Preventive Health Examinations and Preventive Gynecological Examinations in the United States. Current Recommendations for Cervical Cancer Screening: Do They Render the Annual Pelvic Exam Obsolete? Physical Characteristics and Beliefs associated with use of pelvic examiniations in asymptomatic Women. Evidence is lacking to support pelvic examinations as screening tool for noncervical cancers or other conditions. Cancer Screening in the United States, 2017: A Review of Current American Cancer Society Guidelines and Current Issues in Cancer Screening. The Ob-Gyn Clerkship: Your Guide to Success Tools for the Clerkship, contained in this document: 1. Sample obstetrics admission note Sample delivery note Sample operative note Sample postpartum note a. Cesarean section orders/note Sample gynecologic history & physical (H&P) Admission orders Commonly-used abbreviations Spanish lesson 1 1. Pt reports good fetal movement, and denies rupture of membranes or vaginal bleeding. Perineum and vagina inspected ­ small 2nd degree perineal laceration repaired under local anesthesia with 2-0 and 3-0 chromic suture in the usual fashion. Sample Postpartum Notes (Soap format) Date and Time: Subjective: Ask every patient about: · Breastfeeding ­ are they breastfeeding/planning to? Ask about hypoestrogenic symptoms, such as hot flashes or night sweats, vaginal dryness, and about current and past use of hormone/estrogen replacement therapy. She describes pain as dull and aching, intermittent, with no relationship to eating but increased before and during menses. Pain has gotten worse over the last 6 months and requires her to miss work 2-3 days per month. We need to make your contractions more frequent Vamos a darle medicina para que le contracciones mas frecuenta. Tell me immediately if you have a headache, Dнgame inmediatamente si tiene blurred vision, or epigastric pain dolor de cabeza, la vista rrosa vista doble, o dolor en el estomago. They make up 52 percent of the voting-age population, and they are more likely to vote in national elections than are men. For example, the average life expectancy for a woman varies considerably according to her race. In 1997, the average life expectancy for white women was 5 years longer than that of African American women (8o years versus 75 years). Women who live in poverty or have less than a high school education have shorter life spans; higher rates of illness, injury, disability, and death; and more limited access to high-quality health care services. Historically, women have also been the primary health care providers and health decision-makers for their families. Of the estimated 15 percent of Americans who are informal care givers, an estimated 72 percent are women-many of them sandwiched between caring for an ailing relative and caring for their own children. At present, most women receive diagnoses and treatment based on what has worked for men. This research is beginning to yield insights into the healthrelated similarities and differences between men and women. National studies have indicated that women may not be as satisfied with the information they receive from their health care providers as are men or with the level of communication with their provider. Furthermore, several studies have found that health care providers treat women differently than they do men.

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Macro cells comprise many micro cells (city ­ centres/highway networks), it further contains small pico-cells (in-house ­ network) where there are many small personal area networks. The requirement of the network is categorized into 8 Introduction pico, micro and macro cells. The envisioned high data rate applications would necessitate that possible authentication and access validation to the mobile device are granted in miniscule time period, i. This would also necessitate minimization of possible shadowing effect and path loss due to be absolutely minimized. Similarly, the capability of mobile devices to communicate directly, bypassing the conventional network infrastructure, i. As stated earlier the high data rate operations would necessitate measures that can minimize latency to the absolute minimum. The capacity of mobile devices to initiate and establish cellular connections among themselves would be highly beneficial, commonly referred as device-to-device communication (D2D). The high data rate and existing spectrum situation would necessitate utilization of frequency bands that are conventionally not utilized for cellular radio communications. Apart from the using these frequency bands the core network would require to rely on cognitive radio technology for ensuring reliable high data services especially for supporting it on mobile devices that are mobile and change geographic locations swiftly. The relevant concepts for effective spectrum utilization in economic aspects of spectrum trading and sharing have been also elaborated in Chapter 4. Various aspects relating with security and privacy challenges and appropriate strategy to address them have been discussed in Chapter 5. The main focus is on the Physical layer security, management and resource optimization, identity management, cooperative communications and Internet of things. M2M and IoT are the key enabling technologies for a pervasive and always-connected 5G mobile services. Research challenges to fully deployable intelligent core are related but not limited to handling the big data collected through M2M and IoT communications. On one hand, technical challenges relate to sufficient coverage range even in a scenario of very high mobility and data rates, and on the other, to moving application from device-to-device without any content interruption. Use of millimetre wave links novel multiple antenna concepts, virtualization, small cell deployments, and novel spectrum usage methods are some of the key research enabling areas for ubiquitous connectivity [1]. In the aspect of increased importance of the cloud computing concept for supporting the big data originating from the intelligent 5G core, 12 Introduction end-to-end ubiquitous networking will require interoperable decentralized service-oriented mechanisms with support of real-time interactions. It is expected that 5G brings another revolution by offering very high data speeds. Ramareddy, the Top 10 List for Terabit Speed Wireless Personal Services, Wireless Personal Communication, vol. It aims at providing higher capacity and performance than any other current emerging technologies by [1]: · Designing air interfaces and new systems that achieve a 3 to 5 times improvement over current wireless communications in terms of channel efficiency; 2. These are the nodes that will facilitate the integration of wireless and wired (optical) network segments [2]. The latter can be achieved by the novel network protocols and architectures for heterogeneous networks such as femto cells, cooperative transmission, wireless-wired network integration, integration of high capacity satellite links and cognitive radio networks [1]. Person to Machine (P2M) the trend of person to machine communication (P2M) is inflaming the bandwidth demand and changes in communication because of its complexity, heterogeneity and integration of new systems and devices using the different network paradigms. Characteristics of the short range communication applications are high data rate, very short range, reliability, battery operated transmitters as well as receivers and low cost. Cellular and wide range the cellular communication system where in perfect cellular coverage occurs if each cell is a hexagon and cells can be arranged in a honeycomb. Most cell towers use Omni directional antennas to data transmit in a circular pattern. These drive the emergence of new environments that evolve from the gradual development and combination of present day cellular communications, IoT and Internet of Services, towards a more advanced vision of fully reprogrammable mobile devices which would make possible to communicate with each other autonomously based on a given event context and part of a scale-free self-organized communication system. It also offers a design of new air interfaces and systems that achieve a 3­5 times improvement over current wireless communications in terms of channel efficiency. It helps in the exploitation of a large channel bandwidth in uncontested areas of the spectrum in higher frequency bands encouraging the techniques like spectrum co-existence and sharing.

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Diseases

  • Genuphobia
  • Caroli disease
  • Systemic carnitine deficiency
  • Ochronosis
  • Degenerative optic myopathy
  • Boudhina Yedes Khiari syndrome
  • Coloboma of macula
  • Mucoepithelial dysplasia

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It usually affects women of childbearing age; the most common variant of papillary carcinoma is the follicular subtype (also known as mixed papillary­follicular variant), which metastasizes slowly and is the least aggressive type of thyroid cancer. Medullary carcinoma, a cancer of the parafollicular cells in the thyroid, is less common (4% of all cases) and tends to occur in families. Nor were there differences between the high- and low-exposure groups (Yi and Ohrr, 2014). The small number of cases and imprecise estimates did not change the conclusion that there was inadequate or insufficient 18 As calculated on the site seer. No pathology was available, and no clinical information on the patients was reported. The authors found a statistically significantly higher proportion of self-reported Agent Orange exposure among thyroid cancer patients (10. Thus, although human and animal studies showed that dioxin and dioxin-like chemicals alter thyroid hormones and increase follicular-cell hyperplasia, there is little evidence of an increase in thyroid cancer. As indicated in Chapter 4, 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T are at most weakly mutagenic or carcinogenic, and no studies that addressed a possible association between exposure to those herbicides and thyroid cancer in animal models have been identified. The categorization of cancers of the lymphatic and hematopoietic systems has changed over time, guided by growing information about somatic mutation, gene expression, and subclonal lineage of the cancer cells that characterize each of a broad spectrum of neoplasms arising in these tissues (Jaffe, 2009). Myeloid cells include monocytes and three types of granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils). Antigen stimulation induces the T cells to differentiate into several subtypes involved in cell-mediated immunity, immune regulation, and the facilitation of B cell function. Progenitor or pre-B cells mature in the bone marrow into antigen-specific B cells. Leukemias occur when a myeloid stem cell residing in the bone marrow becomes transformed, resulting in a failure of differentiation and a resistance to normal feedback on cellular proliferation. In addition, changes in adhesion molecules allow the release of these immature cells into the peripheral blood. Leukemias are generally classified as myeloid or lymphoid, depending on the lineage of the malignant cell population. Lymphomas generally present as solid tumors at lymphoid proliferative sites, such as lymph nodes and the spleen. About 85% of lymphomas are of B-cell origin, and 15% are of T-cell or natural killer-cell origin (Jaffe et al. Multiple myeloma is a lymphohematopoietic malignancy derived from antibody-secreting plasma cells, which also have a B-cell lineage, that accumulate primarily in the bone marrow but may also infiltrate extramedullary sites. It represents a substantial advance in understanding the biologic paths by which these malignancies develop. The Update 2014 committee familiarized itself with the classification systems that have been used for lymphoid malignancies, including hearing a presentation from the International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium (InterLymph) describing a proposed classification of these cancers into subtypes that are particularly appropriate for epidemiologic research, including methods to harmonize data, standardized definitions of disease entities and rigorous quality control of these subtype assessments, and attempts to understand the implications of etiologic heterogeneity (Morton et al. Data on human hematopoietic stem cells and from the use of knockout Ahr mouse models show that Ahr is critical in hematopoietic stem cell maturation and differentiation (Ahrenhoerster et al. No new mechanistic or biologic plausibility studies regarding lymphohematopoietic cells have been identified by the committee since Update 2014. A higher incidence in people who have a history of infectious mononucleosis has been observed in some studies, and a link with Epstein­Barr virus has been proposed (Balfour et al. Several of the other case-control and occupational-cohort 19 As calculated on the site seer. A proportionate mortality ratio analysis that compared the experience of 33,833 U. Studies of Australian, New Zealander, and Korean veterans who served in Vietnam have also been reviewed. Several occupational cohorts of workers from several countries who were exposed to phenoxy herbicides and other related chemicals have been followed long term. The incidence rate is about 50% higher in white and black men than in women of the same race and is highest for whites.

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It is envisaged that the contents will be reviewed on an annual basis to ensure that management is current and where possible, evidence-based. These guidelines are based on the best evidence currently available, and include diagnosis, staging and treatment. There are several fundamental principles on which the guidance is built: accurate pathological diagnosis and staging, multidisciplinary team decision making, appropriate referral to the Centre, and access to clinical nurse specialists. It is important that eligible women are offered entry into international, national, regional and local cancer trials. The Guidelines are set out by primary tumour site and include investigation and staging, primary treatment, rarer histo-types, follow up and management of recurrent disease. The resulting agreed pathway and guidelines for management remain in place and are included under section 5 "Vulval Cancer". The population has been geographically organised into the following organisational sectors. The Christie Hospital is the Tertiary Referral Centre for treatment with radiotherapy delivered at the Christie Hospital and the satellite radiotherapy units based at Royal Oldham Hospital and Salford Royal. Chemotherapy and clinical trials for gynaecology are predominantly delivered at the Christie Hospital. Although chemotherapy for other tumour sites is currently available at a number of local trusts across the area, this pathway is not yet established for gynaecological cancers. Squamous carcinoma and adenocarcinoma carry the same prognosis, which is stage dependent. The increasing cure rate partly reflects down staging achieved through screening and increased health awareness by women. Lymphatic/vascular channel involvement does not influence the stage but may influence the management. For women wishing to have further children, a second excisional treatment is preferable as further surgery. In women for whom fertility is not an issue, hysterectomy with ovarian conservation (if <45 years) may be the preferred option. Bimanual vaginal and rectal examination will usually reveal whether the tumour is confined to the cervix or not. Cystoscopy +/- sigmoidoscopy may also be required where bladder or rectal involvement is a possibility. Full blood count and serum biochemistry should be carried out paying particular attention to anaemia and renal function. Where renal obstructive uro-pathy is present, there should be discussion with the clinical oncologist with consideration given to correction of the Uropathy before transfer of the patient. Routine radiological surveillance thereafter in the follow-up of asymptomatic women is not indicated. Surgery is generally preferred because of ovarian preservation, length of treatment and avoidance of radiation effects; however, patient preference may influence management. Bulky (>4cm) early stage disease is better managed by radical chemo-radiation (Grade A) and to avoid both radical surgery combined with radiotherapy, which may result in increased morbidity. Strong radiological evidence of lymphadenopathy is a contraindication to surgical treatment. Surgery for cervical cancer should, be undertaken by a gynaecological oncologist at the Centre and decisions regarding adjuvant or primary radiotherapy should be made in discussion with the clinical oncologist in the gynaecological team (Grade C). Para-aortic nodes are removed if enlarged or if pelvic nodes are suspicious, but not routinely. Suction drainage to the pelvis may be used according to an individual surgeons practice but is not essential (Grade A) and indwelling catheterisation for at least five days with a urethral or supra-pubic catheter is usually required. Residual urine volume should be <150 ml, before permanent removal of the catheter. The field includes the cervix, uterus, parametrium, upper vagina, ovaries and loco-regional nodes including obturator, external, internal and common iliac.

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Moreover, we are proposing that even when a provisional affirmation has been received, a claim for services may be denied based on either technical requirements that can only be evaluated after the claim has been submitted for formal processing or information not available at the time the prior authorization request is received (proposed new § 419. As noted earlier, we are proposing that, in submitting a prior authorization request, the provider must include all relevant documentation necessary to show that the service meets applicable Medicare coverage, coding, and payment rules and that the request be submitted before the service is provided to the beneficiary and before the claim is submitted (proposed new § 419. We are proposing that, if the provider receives a non-affirmation decision, we would allow the provider to resubmit a prior authorization request with any applicable additional relevant documentation. This would include the resubmission of requests for expedited reviews (proposed new § 419. However, the provider will still have the opportunity to resubmit a prior authorization request under proposed new § 419. These associated services include, but are not limited to, services such as anesthesiology services, physician services, and/or facility services. The associated claims would be denied whether a non-affirmation was received for a service listed in proposed new § 419. A contractor is not required to request medical documentation from the provider who billed the associated claims before making such a denial. We are requesting public comments on whether the requirement in proposed new § 419. Proposed List of Outpatient Department Services That Would Require Prior Authorization (Proposed New § 419. Proposed List of Outpatient Department Services Requiring Prior Authorization As mentioned earlier, we have identified a list of specific services (Table 38) that, based on review and analysis of claims data for the 11-year period from 2007 through 2017, show higher than expected, and therefore, we believe, unnecessary, increases in the volume of service utilization. These services fall within the following five categories: blepharoplasty; botulinum toxin injections; panniculectomy; rhinoplasty; and vein ablation. In making the decision to propose to include the specific services in the proposed list of hospital outpatient department services requiring prior authorization as shown in Table 38, we first considered that these services are most often considered cosmetic and, therefore, are only covered by Medicare in very rare circumstances. We then viewed the current volume of utilization of these services and determined that the utilization far exceeds what would be expected in light of the average rateof-increase in the number of Medicare beneficiaries. We note that we are unaware of other factors that might contribute to increases in volume of services that indicate that the services are increasingly medically necessary, such as clinical advancements or expanded coverage criteria that would have led to the increases. Based on analysis and comparisons of claims data, these increases in service utilization volume, financial expense, and the number of Medicare patients far exceed the typical baseline rates or trends we identified. Based on analysis and comparisons of claims data, these increases in service utilization volume, financial expense to the Medicare program, and the number of Medicare patients also far exceed the typical baseline rates or trends we identified (that is, the 9. Even though this category of services includes some procedures that had annual increases in service utilization volume far exceeding what we would expect based on the typical rate, this was not true for all services within the category. The five categories of services would be: Blepharoplasty; botulinum toxin injections; panniculectomy; rhinoplasty; and vein ablation. We would exempt providers that achieve a prior authorization provisional affirmation threshold of at least 90 percent during a semiannual assessment. We anticipate that an exemption will take approximately 90 calendar days to effectuate. We believe that, by achieving this percentage, the provider would be demonstrating an understanding of the requirements for submitting accurate claims. We do not believe it is necessary for a provider to achieve 100 percent compliance to qualify for an exemption because innocent and sporadic errors could occur that are not deliberate or systematic attempts to submit claims that are not payable. If the rate of nonpayable claims submitted becomes higher than 10 percent during a biannual assessment, we will consider withdrawing exemption. Again, we anticipate that withdrawing the exemption may take approximately 90 calendar days to effectuate. While we believe this is unlikely to occur, we nonetheless believe it is necessary for us to retain this flexibility in the event of certain circumstances, such as where the cost of the prior authorization program exceeds the savings it generates. This rate increased significantly more than the expected rate and was as much as 34. However, some procedures had annual increases in service utilization volume that far exceeded these expected rates. As an example, the number of unique claims for the procedure of repairing of the upper eyelid muscle to correct drooping or paralysis increased as high 39607 as 48. Table 38 lists the specific procedures within the five categories of services that we are proposing for the proposed list of hospital outpatient department services requiring prior authorization. For this cause, the Department is seeking public comments, including comments from hospitals and revenue cycle management experts, cost report experts, accounting firms, or others who understand hospital cash flows, on innovative and streamlined methods for establishing hospital payment to the extent permitted by law. The cost report contains provider information such as facility characteristics, utilization data, cost and charges by cost center (in total and for Medicare), Medicare settlement data, and financial statement data.

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Both trials demonstrated reduction in morbidity with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and equal quality of life in both arms (Level I Grade A). There is currently no validated algorithm to predict outcome of surgery and therefore to guide decision making regarding primary or delayed primary surgery [18, 19]. Initial surgery should comprise of a unilateral salpingo-ophorectomy + peritoneal washings + / - omental biopsy, aiming to keep the ovarian capsule intact and obtain definitive histopathological diagnosis. Further surgery in the form of an omentectomy, pelvic and para-aortic lymph node sampling and peritoneal biopsies + biopsy of any suspicious lesions would then be performed as completion staging surgery. For women with optimally staged low-risk disease, adjuvant chemotherapy should not be offered. All optimally staged patients with high risk disease (stage I grade 3 or stage Ib/1c grade 2) should be considered for adjuvant chemotherapy with 6 cycles of carboplatin. Women who have had incomplete surgery for apparent stage I disease should be considered for restaging or seen by a medical oncologist to discuss the possible benefits and side effects of adjuvant chemotherapy. There was however an improvement in the quality of life for those women randomised to neo-adjuvant chemotherapy. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy may also be considered if the prospects for optimal debulking at laparotomy are remote. The default position should be to offer surgery after 3 cycles of chemotherapy though each case should be considered on an individual basis. Women who fail to respond adequately to chemotherapy or are considered to have irressectable disease may benefit from continuing chemotherapy. Deferral of cyto-reductive surgery until after 6 cycles of chemotherapy should only occur in exceptional circumstances, generally when reversible patient-related factors prevent surgery being performed in an interval fashion. Important factors to consider that may preclude debulking are, bulky extra-abdominal disease sites, extensive mesenteric involvement and coeliac axis disease. For patients who do not have primary or delayed primary surgery there are no data to support a role for surgery after completion of chemotherapy and this situation should be avoided wherever possible. There are no absolute indications for neo-adjuvant chemotherapy but this may be considered where: 1. It should be emphasised that primary debulking surgery remains the management strategy of choice for the majority of women with suspected ovarian/ primary peritoneal cancer. This subset analysis however was based on small numbers of patients and should therefore not prevent a discussion on adjuvant chemotherapy with individuals who have high risk stage I disease. Currently optimal first-line chemotherapy is platinum based and patients should be offered the choice of single of a combination of carboplatin and paclitaxel (international standard-of-care) [22] or single agent carboplatin (Grade A). Bevacizumab is administered as concurrent and maintenance therapy and is currently funded in this indication through the Cancer Drugs Fund for a total duration of twelve months therapy. All patients should be offered the opportunity to participate in clinical trials if they meet the eligibility criteria. On the basis of this, remission status (complete remission, partial remission, stable disease, progressive disease) should be assigned. Inpatients with residual there is no benefit from additional chemotherapy at this time (Grade A). Visits should occur every three months years 1 and 2, six monthly in years 3-5 (Grade C). It should be emphasized that patientinitiated attendance with symptoms between routine follow-up visits is important in the detection of recurrence. When cancer recurs more than six months after completion of first-line therapy, carboplatin forms the basis of treatment regimens. When cancer recurs less than six months after platinum-based chemotherapy, response rates to carboplatin are low and non-cross resistant chemotherapy regimens should be used. These should be administered under the supervision of a specialist ovarian cancer medical oncologist. The suitability for clinical trials should be considered in all patients with recurrent ovarian cancer through discussion with the trial coordinator. It should be noted that patients will often derive benefit from receiving multiple lines of chemotherapy after disease relapse. Radiotherapy should be considered for localised deposits of disease that are painful, ulcerating or bleeding. Psychological support is particularly important at this stage and the palliative care team should be involved earlier rather than later.

References:

  • http://farleyhealthpolicycenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/Core-Competencies-for-Behavioral-Health-Providers-Working-in-Primary-Care.pdf
  • https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/sites/default/files/media/docs/sickle-cell-disease-report%20020816_0.pdf
  • http://www.margaretwilliams.me/2012/wessely-maddox-prize_12nov2012.pdf
  • http://www.floridahealth.gov/provider-and-partner-resources/community-partnerships/floridamapp/state-and-community-reports/union-county/_documents/Union_CHA_122019.pdf
  • https://www.novartis.us/sites/www.novartis.us/files/Cataflam.pdf
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