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Sudan has made no meaningful attempt to provide accountability for past or current abuses in conflict zones or other serious human rights violations. Conflict and Abuses in Darfur, Southern Kordofan, and Blue Nile Although in July Sudan extended its unilateral ceasefire in conflict zones until the end of the year, its forces, including the paramilitary Rapid Support Forces, attacked over a dozen villages in the Jebel Mara region of Darfur between March and May. Attackers killed at least 23 civilians, destroyed and looted civilian property, and caused thousands to flee their homes. More than 2 million people remain displaced due to the conflict between armed opposition and government forces that started in 2003. Seven years into the armed conflict in Southern Kordofan and Blue Nile, the government and armed opposition have failed to agree on modalities for supplying life-saving aid to civilians in need. Sudanese human rights monitors reported government-aligned militia attacks on civilians in Blue Nile in April. Security officials dispersed several university student protests across the country, detaining and injuring many throughout the year. In January, security forces shot at student protesters in El Geneina, West Darfur, killing one, and at displaced persons at a camp in Zalingei, in Central Darfur, killing five. Malicious Prosecutions, Harassment In February, a group of nine police in plainclothes raided an apartment where activist Wini Omer-a vocal critic of the public order regime-was meeting three friends, arrested the group, detained them for five days, and accused them of prostitution. On July 24, a prosecutor brought eight additional charges against Omer, including crimes against the state, punishable by death. A religious teacher in Central Darfur, Matar Younis, arrested in April for criticizing human rights violations by government forces in Darfur, was accused of crimes against the state and espionage. In November, security officials charged activist Mohamed Boshi with espionage and crimes against the state after he was forcibly disappeared and then extrajudicially returned from Egypt to Sudan in October. Authorities also barred opposition politicians and activists from traveling out of Sudan and confiscated passports, including of a Darfur Bar Association lawyer returning from an award ceremony in the United States in August. Arbitrary Detentions, Torture During the wave of protests in January and February, security agents detained hundreds of rights activists, protesters and opposition party members and held dozens for weeks without charge. Rudwan Daoud, a Sudanese-American activist, was detained for six weeks without charge after security agents arrested him during a protest against government land expropriations. Activist and vocal critic Husham Ali has been detained without charge by security officials following his deportation in May from Saudi Arabia, where he had been detained since November 2017. In July, security agents arrested social media activist and sports commentator, Ahmed al-Dai Bushara, at his home in Omdurman and held him incommunicado, without charge, for over two months, releasing him in mid-September. A Darfuri student leader, released in late January after five months of solitary confinement, was repeatedly beaten, subjected to electric shocks, threatened with death and rape, and held in harsh conditions. In October, student activist Asim Omer Hassan, who faces charges of killing a policeman during protests in May 2016, was hospitalized after being beaten in Kober prison. Sudan has failed to investigate allegations of torture by national security officials and has yet to ratify the Convention Against Torture, which it signed in 1986. Freedom of Media In the first week of January alone, security officials seized print runs of eight newspapers because they had covered the anti-austerity protests. Throughout the year they suspended, delayed, or confiscated editions of newspapers for running pieces critical of the president or ruling party, its economic policies, corruption, or other sensitive topics. Most were released the same day but four were held for several weeks without charge; journalist Amal Habani was severely beaten during interrogation. Security officials summoned and interrogated editors and journalists, confiscated laptops, and warned them not to cross "red lines. Officials sentenced the former editor-in-chief of alMustagila newspaper to prison for "false news" for articles published in 2015. Sexual Violence and Discrimination Government forces used sexual violence against women and girls with impunity, particularly in Darfur where they have been implicated in widespread sexual violence in the past. In February, the United Nations expert on sexual violence in conflict noted following her visit to Sudan that there is a deep-seated culture of denial around rape. In May, Noura Hussein, a 19-year-old woman forced into marriage at 16, was sentenced to death for killing her husband when he tried to rape her. Authorities have deported Eritreans, often without giving them an opportunity to apply for asylum.
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Would their solidarity with us require them to give up their lands, their resources, their ways of life, so that we who numbered so few, after all could have more? Further, they reveal the limitations to "solidarity," without the willingness to acknowledge stolen land and how stolen land benefits settlers. For social justice movements, like Occupy, to truly aspire to decolonization nonmetaphorically, they would impoverish, not enrich, the 99%+ settler population of United States. It requires the abolition of land as property and upholds the sovereignty of Native land and people. There are important parallels between Occupy/Decolonize and the French/Haitian Revolutions of 1789-1799 and 1791-1804, respectively. Unfortunately, history provides us with the exact figures on what their property was worth; in 1825, "France recognized Haitian independence by a treaty requiring Haiti to pay an indemnity of 150 million francs payable in 5 years to compensate absentee slaveowners for their losses" (Schuller, 2007, p. By contrast France sold the Louisiana Purchase to the United States in 1803 for a net sum of 42 million Francs. The indemnity demand, delivered by 12 warships armed with 500 canons, "heralded a strategy of plunder" (Schuller, 2007, p. Decolonization is not a metaphor 27 reparations not for slavery, but to former slave owners, plunged Haiti into eternal debt20. Occupy draws almost directly from the values of the French Revolution: the Commons, the General Assembly, the natural right to property, and the resistance to the decolonization of Indigenous life/land. In 1789, the French Communes (Commons) declared themselves a National Assembly directly "of the People" (the 99%) against the representative assembly of "the Estates" (the 1%) set up by the ruling elite, and adopted the celebrated Declaration of the Rights of the Man and the Citizen. Not unlike the heated discussions at the December 4, 2011 General Assembly of Occupy Oakland that ultimately rejected the proposal to change the name to "Decolonize Oakland", the 1789 National Assembly debated at great length over the language of emancipation in the Declaration. Ultimately, the Declaration abolished slavery but not property, and effectively stipulated that property trumped emancipation. While rhetorically declaring men as forever free and equal (and thus unenslavable), it assured the (revolutionary) colonial proprietors in the assembly that their chattel would be untouched, stating unequivocally: "The right to property being inviolable and sacred, no one ought to be deprived of it. French Revolution Haitian Revolution 99% French, 1% Slaves21 90% Slaves, 10% Whites & Free Blacks Decolonizing the Americas means all land is repatriated and all settlers become landless. It is incommensurable with the redistribution of Native land/life as common-wealth. Haiti paid off its indemnity to France in 1937, but only through new indemnity with the United States. The call to "occupy everything" has legitimized a set of practices with problematic relationships to land and to Indigenous sovereignty. Urban homesteading, for example, is the practice of re-settling urban land in the fashion of self-styled pioneers in a mythical frontier. Claiming land for the Commons and asserting consensus as the rule of the Commons, erases existing, prior, and future Native land rights, decolonial leadership, and forms of self-government. Occupation is a move towards innocence that hides behind the numerical superiority of the settler nation, the elision of democracy with justice, and the logic that what became property under the 1% rightfully belongs to the other 99%. In contrast to the settler labor of occupying the commons, homesteading, and possession, some scholars have begun to consider the labor of de-occupation in the undercommons, permanent fugitivity, and dispossession as possibilities for a radical black praxis. Such "a labor that is dedicated to the reproduction of social dispossession as having an ethical dimension" (Moten & Harney, 2004, p. These are interruptions which destabilize, un-balance, and repatriate the very terms and assumptions of some of the most radical efforts to reimagine human power relations. We argue that the opportunities for solidarity lie in what is incommensurable rather than what is common across these efforts. We offer these perspectives on unsettling innocence because they are examples of what we might call an ethic of incommensurability, which recognizes what is distinct, what is sovereign for project(s) of decolonization in relation to human and civil rights based social justice projects. There are portions of these projects that simply cannot speak to one another, cannot be aligned or allied. We make these notations to highlight opportunities for what can only ever be strategic and contingent collaborations, and to indicate the reasons that lasting solidarities may be elusive, even undesirable. Below we point to unsettling themes that challenge the coalescence of social justice endeavors broadly assembled into three areas: 23 Wayne would like to give special thanks to Jodi Byrd for pointing out this numerical irony. Decolonization is not a metaphor 29 Transnational or Third World decolonizations, Abolition, and Critical Space-Place Pedagogies. For each of these areas, we offer entry points into the literature - beginning a sort of bibliography of incommensurability. Third world decolonizations the anti-colonial turn towards the transnational can sometimes involve ignoring the settler colonial context where one resides and how that inhabitation is implicated in settler colonialism, in order to establish "global" solidarities that presumably suffer fewer complicities and complications.
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Enteral nutritional support in prevention and treatment of pressure ulcers: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Hospital characteristics associated with feeding tube placement in nursing home residents with advanced cognitive impairment. Impact of a palliative care service on in-hospital mortality in a comprehensive cancer center. Palliative care inpatient services in a comprehensive cancer center: Clinical and financial outcomes. Is there evidence that palliative care teams alter end-of-life experiences of patients and their caregivers? Brief communication: Management of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators in hospice: A nationwide survey. Recurrent headache is the most common pain problem, affecting 15% to 20% of people. Occlusive carotid artery disease does not cause fainting but rather causes focal neurologic deficits such as unilateral weakness. Thus, carotid imaging will not identify the cause of the fainting and increases cost. Opioid and butalbital treatment for migraine should be avoided because more effective, migraine-specific treatments are available. Opioids should be reserved for those with medical conditions precluding the use of migraine-specific treatments or for those who fail these treatments. Interferon-beta and glatiramer acetate do not prevent the development of permanent disability in progressive forms of multiple sclerosis. These medications increase costs and have frequent side effects that may adversely affect quality of life. The cited 3% threshold for complication rates may be high because more recent studies have reported lower stroke rates with improvements in both surgical (Brott, 2010) and medical (Marquardt) management. Members of this group were selected to broadly represent varying practice settings and neurological subspecialties. Neurologists with methodological expertise in evidence-based medicine and practice guideline development were also included. The utility of the electroencephalogram in the evaluation of patients presenting with headache: a review of the literature. The Task Force for the Diagnosis and Management of Syncope of the European Society of Cardiology. Practice parameter: Evidence-based guidelines for migraine headache (an evidence-based review): Report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. La Mantia L, Vacchi L, Di Pietrantonj C, Ebers G, Rovaris M, Fredrikson S, Filippini G. Prevention of disabling and fatal strokes by successful carotid endarterectomy in patients without recent neurological symptoms: randomized controlled trial. Guidelines for the primary prevention of stroke: a guideline for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Carotid endarterectomy: an evidence-based report of the Technology and Therapeutics Committee of the American Academy of Neurology. Updated Society for Vascular Surgery guidelines for management of extracranial carotid disease. Low risk of ipsilateral stroke in patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis on best medical treatment: a prospective, population-based study. The Academy provides valuable resources for neurologists and neuroscience professionals worldwide who look to the Academy for the most comprehensive professional development, career enhancement, and practice improvement opportunities available. Upright positions and walking have been associated with shorter duration of first stage labor, fewer cesareans and reduced epidural use. Walking during the hospital stay is critical for maintaining functional ability in older adults.
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Many communities with growing religious affiliation-including in the Middle East and Africa-will expect their governments to incorporate religion and its principles into legislation and government policies. Many religious organizations-including Catholic Relief Services, Compassion International, and World Vision- are already essential to the delivery of basic public services, humanitarian aid and development. Charismatic and extremist leaders can gain disruptive capabilities, although violent and extremist groups that lack technocratic skill will struggle to provide governance. Most religious people will not actively support extremism, but passive support or implicit acceptance of extremists will worsen tension between groups, and violent leaders will be acknowledged as actors on the world stage. One possible response to intensifying religious violence could be a turn toward secularism or away from religious affiliation in general. Worldwide, those identifying themselves as religiously "unaffiliated" represent the third-largest grouping after Christians and Muslims, and polls suggest that the number of people not affiliated with religion, although not the percentage, is likely to grow worldwide-especially in the Asia-Pacific, Europe and North America. Liberalism is likely to remain the benchmark model for economies and politics over the coming decades, but it will face stronger competition and demands from publics to address its shortfalls. Western ideals of individual freedom and democratic action will exert enormous global influence, judging by the aspirations of migrants and dissidents worldwide who are drawn to these principles. Many developing countries will strive for modernization more or less along Western lines, but the allure of liberalism has taken some strong hits over the years as political polarization, financial volatility, and economic inequality in western countries have stoked populism and caused doubts about the price of political and economic openness. Putin lauds Russian culture as the last · · 194 bulwark of conservative Christian values against European decadence, saying Russia, with its great history, literature, and culture, will resist the tide of multiculturalism. Russian nationalist aggression is likely to increase under Putin, which will provoke sometimes violent nationalist responses among its neighbors-like in Ukraine and Georgia-and spark feelings of disenfranchisement among ethnic minorities. Without a return to secure and more-evenly-distributed living standards, economic and social pressures are likely to fuel nativism and populism in the West, risking a narrowing of political communities and exclusionary policies. A weakening of the rule of law, political tolerance, and political freedoms in the United States and Western Europe-the traditional strongholds of democracy-could delegitimize democratic ideas around the world. Just as the world is watching the United States and Europe grapple with divisive politics and often uncivil rhetoric in debates over immigration, racial justice, refugees, and the merits of globalization, the world will look to see how India tames its Hindu nationalist impulses, and how Israel balances its ultra-orthodox extremes. Such dynamics could result in democratic backsliding-as in Hungary and Poland-or a move toward authoritarianism, like in Turkey. Without a strong response from other stable democracies, this trend is likely to accelerate. Each of these poses moral, legal, social, and political challenges that are likely to be navigated according to existing cultural norms that vary by country. How people think about the very nature of life and how people love and hate is likely to be challenged by major technological advances in understanding and efforts to manipulate human anatomy, which will spark strong divisions between people, country and regions. These 195 developments will spur debates within and between belief communities, potentially leading to even starker distinctions between the religious and secular worlds. Many people probably will embrace such technical enhancements as critical to getting ahead in an increasingly competitive world, but some are likely to resist on moral or ethical grounds- because they are "unnatural," or not available to the poor. Health experts forecast that biotechnology research could yield breakthroughs against some cancers and other diseases, but expensive and limited early iterations of such methods probably would spark heated disagreements on access to healthcare if the techniques mean the difference between life and death. As lifespans lengthen, millions more people worldwide will reach 80, 90, or even 100 years of age and beyond. In the United States, a significant portion of healthcare spending occurs in the last six months of life. Trends that encourage home care create more options for elderly who choose die at home rather than in a hospital. The demand for capabilities to improve humane choices in confronting death and dying will grow worldwide, including advances in hospice care that mitigates the pain and suffering of the terminally ill and provides psychological support to reduce fear and enable dying with dignity. As monitoring and sensing devices become more affordable, ubiquitous and integrated, the line between what is technically possible and what is legally and socially acceptable will be tested. Global governance of common-pool resources such as public health, water, food and other key resources will inevitably challenge current ideas of privacy, control and power. Social media has radically lowered the transaction costs of mobilizing populations, but some social scientists worry that virtual activism will replace more concrete political participation-including voting-diluting the quality of the political process. Worse, some worry that that new technologies fracture and polarize populations; social media, in particular, typically passes information and ideas through narrow, existing networks to members who self-select, rather than traditional forms of media, which project ideas to a broader audience. Education will be one of the most determinative factors of success for countries and individuals because it determines options for occupations, wages, innovation, and development. Rapid advances in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics, fields in which a large portion of future jobs will reside, require continuous maintenance of skills. As millions of youth seek education to match employment opportunities-and millions of adults look for continuing education and career training in rapidly evolving fields-alternative models are likely to emerge from a variety of sources.
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In the easy money climate of the 1920s, a time of cheap nonunion labor and readily available materials, the operators could well afford an occasional smashed airplane and dead pilot. On the Boeing Air Transport Division of what later became United Airlines, the Cheyenne repair and maintenance base would frequently salvage only the registration number of a crashed aircraft and then proceed to build an entirely new airplane around it. But even then, a pilot had no recourse but to fly if a determined operations manager disputed his decision to cancel. Operations managers, themselves pilots, used this device to urge their pilots into flying contests. Then in January 1933, when I got my first command, flying single engine night mail, I was transferred to Omaha. Dave Behncke met me one night when I came in off the line at Chicago and we talked in his car. He was a good example of a weather pusher, pushing pilots to make his record look good. We had a case of competitive flying start up that was the cause of a serious accident. I blame it on the intimidation of [the management pilot], but you had to kill somebody before you really got the problem solved. But the first generation of professional pilots accepted the risks of the flying game the way it was, often flying under circumstances modern pilots would never accept. They flew when some unknown railway telegrapher said he could see five, maybe six telephone poles down the track. Early pilots learned to fly slightly to the right of the tracks just in case a brother pilot might be fumbling along in the opposite direction. An airmail pilot working for the Post Office Department in 1918 stood only one chance in four of surviving until 1926, when the private contractors took over. The situation improved only slightly thereafter, and as late as the mid1930s, Behncke was scoring well in debates with the operators by citing the risk factor. A favorite rhetorical device of his was to intone solemnly, at appropriate intervals, that one airline pilot perished in the line of duty every so many days. For months, the Sen ate investigation into the awarding of the 1930 airmail contracts had filled headlines with charges of fraud and collusion between postal officials and airline executives. And, as we have seen, most pilots were aware of something peculiar in the way the airmail operation was being run. Perhaps, in a moral sense, a case could be made that the major operators deserved to have their airmail contracts canceled. Therefore the law should provide for a method to fix maximum hours and minimum pay. After 1934 the operators started praising their pilots to congressmen of all political stripes, agreeing that they needed federal protection. Since Congress was obviously going to insert protective provisions for pilots into the Air Mail Act of 1934 anyway, it made sense for the operators to be good sports about it. Besides, they hoped to pass along the increase in pilot salaries to the taxpayers. This turned out to be only partly true, as we shall see, and hence a source of much future fric tion. What Behncke proved was that he knew how to play hardball with the big boys, and he did it brilliantly. But this was a minority point of view, coming mostly from pilots so devoted to their employers, perhaps out of fear, that they could not properly distinguish their own interests. And in any case, Behncke had exceptionally good insight into the mental processes of the typical pilot of that era, knowing that when he stressed the dangers of flying, he was on perfectly safe ground. The devilmaycare attitudes usually associated with flying were a part of the mystique of aviation. Of course, by the late 1920s, much of this kind of thinking among pilots was mostly sham; they were already in the process of becoming quite ordinary technocrats-sober family men, regular in their habits. Any schoolboy of the time could tell you about the avia tion feats of Acosta, the Hunter brothers, and countless others.
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Typical occupations: Dog Catcher; Farmer, General; Gardener Group 492 Logging & Fishing Occupations Very physical work performed outside; high demand on spine & legs for balancing, working on rugged terrain, and climbing; arm and other variants similar to 560. Locate the row on which the impairment number appears*, and the column headed by the group number. This letter is the "Occupational Variant" which is represented by a letter between "C" and "J" inclusive. After establishing the occupational variant, turn to Section 5, page 5-1 to adjust the rating for occupation. J D E F F F F E D C E D J I D G E F F F G D C G D I I C H D F F F H C D H C I F C H D F F F H C D H C H J E E H F F F E E D E E I I E G E F F F G E D G E H I E F F F F F F E E F E J H F E F H H F E F F E F I J F G F F F F G F F G F I I E H E F F F H E E H E J D E G E F F F G E E G E F D E G E F F F G E E G E F H E E E G G F E E E E E G H F F F G G F F F F F F H J E F F G G F F E E F E I I E G F F F F G E E G E H I F F F F F F F F F F F I I F G G F F F G F G G F J D F H F F F F H F F H F H C F G F F F F G F F G F F 4-4 331 13. Locate the row on which the rating (after adjustment for diminished future earning capacity) appears and the column headed by the occupation variant (obtained from the Occupational Variant Table in Section 4). After adjusting the rating for occupation, turn to Section 6, page 6-1 to adjust for age. Locate the row on which the rating (already adjusted for earning capacity and occupation) appears, and the column headed by the age at time of injury. Apply earning capacity, occupation and age adjustments4 to hand and shoulder ratings: Hand: 16. Calculate disability rating for the back by adjusting the back impairment rating for earning capacity, occupation and age. Apply earning capacity, occupation and age adjustments7 to each whole person impairment. Calculate the maximum value for a single leg adjusted for earning capacity, age and occupation. Calculate the disability rating for the left leg in accordance with Example B above. Convert the lower extremity impairment rating for the right knee to whole person impairment. Combine the ratings for the right arm, back, and each leg in the order from the largest to the smallest. When combining groups of three or more values, always combine the larger two first, and then successively combine the result with the next smaller until all values are combined. Gene therapy is now Annual report and accounts 2017 Oxford BioMedica in brief Oxford BioMedica is a pioneer of gene and cell therapy with a leading position in lentiviral vector and cell therapy research, development and bioprocessing. Oxford BioMedica is focused on developing life changing treatments for serious diseases. Oxford BioMedica and its subsidiaries (the "Group") have built a sector leading lentiviral vector delivery platform (LentiVector), which the Group leverages to develop in vivo and ex vivo products both in-house and with partners. Oxford BioMedica plc Annual report and accounts 2017 Introducing Oxford BioMedica At the front and centre Oxford BioMedica is a leading gene and cell therapy company and our work is now beginning to deliver life changing treatments. Valuable research tool the LentiVector platform is also used as a valuable research tool. Oxford BioMedica plc Annual report and accounts 2017 Read more about the gene and cell therapy sector on page 10. However, our LentiVector delivery system could be used for many more diseases for which there are currently unmet needs. Our LentiVector delivery platform is used in all of our own gene and cell therapy products in development. The large growth in lentiviral vector based clinical trials shows ex vivo treatments are leading the way. Trials showed an 83% overall remission rate in this patient population which has limited treatment options and historically poor outcomes. Understand more about our financial position and how we are getting closer to our goal of becoming a sustainable business in the financial review on page 32. Gene therapy is now coming of age and we are ideally placed to benefit from the growth in this valuable sector over the coming years.
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Labor Rights According to the Georgian Trade Union Confederation, 29 workers died and 24 were injured in work-related accidents through July. In March, parliament adopted a law on labor safety that applies to only high-risk areas of work. The law authorizes the labor inspectorate to inspect an employer without a court order following an accident, but limits its mandate to work safety issues, as opposed to other labor standards. Tsulukiani responded by saying these groups held a grudge against her because she refused to register "a person with male organs as female" and vice-versa. Georgian law allows gender recognition for transgender people, however, transgender people are required to present proof of gender reassignment surgery. She called on authorities to devise a strategy addressing discrimination and ageism. The International Criminal Court continued its investigation into war crimes and crimes against humanity allegedly committed in the lead-up to, during, and after the August 2008 war between Russia and Georgia over South Ossetia. The president vetoed the bill in January for those reasons, but the parliament overturned the veto. A former owner alleged that he had been forced to sell the station below the market value and sought to restore his rights. The owners alleged that the authorities proposed they forfeit the channel in exchange for resolving their tax debt. At time of writing, the Constitutional Court had ordered that Velбsquez should be allowed to return, but authorities indicated they would not comply with this order. Prosecutors also pressed charges against scores of officials-including more than a dozen current and former members of Congress from six different political parties-for hiring people in Congress who never performed any work for the institution (or already received a salary from another employer) and pocketing the wages for those "phantom jobs. At time of writing, other major corruption cases brought since 2015 were still in pretrial proceedings. Accountability for Past Human Rights Violations In May 2018, three former military officers were sentenced to 58 years each for the enforced disappearance of then 14-year old Marco Antonio Molina Theissen and the rape of his sister Emma in 1981. After Emma escaped from an army base where she was raped, officers went to her house and took away her younger brother in apparent retaliation. Among those convicted was Benedicto Lucas Garcнa, former top military officer and brother of former military dictator Romeo Lucas Garcнa. The trial against former Guatemalan dictator Efraнn Rнos Montt and a former soldier for their role in the 1982 Dos Erres massacre, in which Guatemalan army special forces killed around 200 civilians as part of their counterinsurgency policy during the armed conflict, had been scheduled for August 2018. In 2011 and 2012, five former members of the military were convicted for their roles in the massacre. In May 2013, Rнos Montt was found guilty of genocide and crimes against humanity for the assassination of over 1,771 Mayan Ixil civilians in 105 massacres, when he was head of state in 1982 and 1983. He was sentenced to 80 years in prison, but 10 days later the Constitutional Court overturned the verdict on procedural Public Security, Corruption, and Criminal Justice Violence and extortion by powerful criminal organizations remain serious problems in Guatemala. Gang-related violence is an important factor prompting people, including unaccompanied children and young adults, to leave the country. Guatemala suffers from high levels of impunity, partly because criminal proceedings against powerful actors often suffer unreasonably long delays due to excessive use of motions by criminal defendants. Those delays are compounded by courts often failing to respect legally mandated time frames and sometimes taking months to reschedule suspended hearings. Intimidation against judges and prosecutors and corruption within the justice system continue to be problems. The retrial began in March 2016 but was suspended two months later because of outstanding legal challenges. In September 2018, the other defendant in the case, the former head of intelligence, was acquitted. The bill needs to pass another round of votes, as well as an approval per article, before the president can sign it into law. Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Violence Against Journalists Journalists are targets of harassment and violence. In June 2016, radio journalist Бlvaro Aceituno was killed, and in March 2015, journalists Danilo Lуpez and Federico Salazar were assassinated. It prohibits same-sex marriage and defines marriage as a union between people who were a man and a woman "by birth," thus excluding many transgender people. The bill defines "sexual diversity" as "incompatible with the biological and genetic aspects of human beings.
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The Government retained ownership of most inventions created with Federal funding, and very few of these were developed successfully into useful products or services. In 1980, the Federal Government held title to more than 28,000 patents, and fewer than five percent of these were licensed to industry for commercial development. The Bayh-Dole Act established a uniform policy that Federal contractors and grantees may elect title to and patent their inventions that are conceived of or first actually reduced to practice in the performance of a Federal grant, contract, or cooperative agreement. Technology Transfer: Administration of the Bayh-Dole Act by Research Universities. This system facilitates and enables grantee and contractor organizations to directly input invention data as one means of fulfilling the reporting requirement. Since 1997, iEdison participation has grown to more than 1,300 registered grantee or contractor organizations supported by any of more than 29 Federal agency offices. Use of iEdison, however, is voluntary for inventions and patents developed under Federal funding agreements. Court of Federal Claims, and the determination of exceptional circumstances is to be held in abeyance until the appeal is resolved. To lessen the current administrative hurdles, Arti Rai and Rebecca Eisenberg called for changing "the requirement that march-in authority be held in abeyance pending exhaustion of all court appeals by the government contractor. Patents, products, and public health: an analysis of the CellPro march-in petition. Assuming such refusal created one of the four conditions needed for march-in, the Government could credibly threaten march-in to induce licensing or actually march in to compel licensing. As such, although a Government threat to bring civil and criminal sanctions for anticompetitive behavior against a patent holder who refused to license is unlikely to be effective after the Trinko decision, a threat to bring march-in likely would be effective, but could only be used where the patented invention was developed with Federal funding. However, since the Best Practices encourage but do not force nonexclusivity, a grantee or contractor can still choose to license a genomic invention exclusively. As an initial step in these instances, it may be prudent to protect the intellectual property rights to the invention. As definitive commercial pathways unfold, those embodiments of an invention requiring exclusive licensing as an incentive for commercial development of products or services can be distinguished from those that would best be disseminated nonexclusively in the marketplace. A nonexclusive licensing approach favors and facilitates making broad enabling technologies and research uses of inventions widely available and accessible to the scientific community. When a genomic invention represents a component part or background to a commercial development, nonexclusive freedom-to-operate licensing may provide an appropriate and sufficient complement to existing exclusive intellectual property rights. In those cases where exclusive licensing is necessary to encourage research and development by private partners, best practices dictate that exclusive licenses should be appropriately tailored to ensure expeditious development of as many aspects of the technology as possible. Specific indications, fields of use, and territories should be limited to be commensurate with the abilities and commitment of licensees to bring the technology to market expeditiously. For example, patent claims to gene sequences could be licensed exclusively in a limited field of use drawn to development of antisense molecules in therapeutic protocols. Independent of such exclusive consideration, the same intellectual property rights could be licensed nonexclusively for diagnostic testing or as a research probe to study gene expression under varying physiological conditions. License agreements should be written with developmental milestones and benchmarks to ensure that the technology is fully developed by the licensee. The timely completion of milestones and benchmarks should be monitored and enforced. Best practices provide for modification or termination of licenses when progress toward commercialization is inadequate. Negotiated sublicensing terms and provisions optimally permit fair and appropriate participation of additional parties in the technology development process. Funding recipients and the intramural technology transfer community may find these recommendations helpful in achieving the universal goal of ensuring that public health consequences are considered when negotiating licenses for genomic technologies. Data sharing policies are also in place for the International HapMap Project, the goal of which is to compare the genetic sequences of different individuals from varying ancestries to identify chromosomal regions where genetic variants are shared. By making this information freely available, the project aims to help biomedical researchers find genes that play a role in disease and in drug responses. Collaborators have adopted an intellectual property policy that all of the data from 76 this effort will be placed in a public database so that it can be shared with other investigators. This practice prevents third parties from taking inappropriate ownership and can reduce the overall cost of research by eliminating the need for others to duplicate the research to gain access Box B. The policy, applying to inventions developed in its intramural research programs, provides for the use of patents and other technology transfer mechanisms (such as license agreements, material transfer agreements, and research-only licenses) for biomedical technologies only when a patent facilitates the availability of the technology to the public for preventive, diagnostic, therapeutic, research, or other commercial uses.