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The Impact of Departmental Research and Teaching Climates on Undergraduate Growth and Satisfaction. A Multi-Campus Study of Academic Performance and Cognitive Growth Among Native Freshman, Two-Year Transfers, and Four-Year Transfers. A Systematic Approach to Assessing Retention Programs: Identifying Critical Points for Meaningful Interventions and Validating Outcomes Assessment. Bridging the Gap: Academic Preparation and Postsecondary Success of First-Generation Students. Teacher Communications, Child Achievement, and Parent Traits in Parent Involvement Models. The Influence of Dominant Race Environments on Student Involvement, Perceptions, and Educational Gains: A Look at Historically Black and Predominantly White Liberal Arts Institutions. Students at Historically Black Colleges and Universities: Their Aspirations & Accomplishments (Policy Information Report). Finance Equalization and Within-School Equity: the Relationship Between Education Spending and the Social Distribution of Achievement. The Impact of Postsecondary Education on the Economic and Social Well-Being of American Society. Social-Psychological Accessibility and Faculty-Student Interaction Beyond the Classroom. Assessing the College Knowledge of First-Generation and Second-Generation Students. A Comparison of International Student and American Student Engagement in Effective Educational Practices. The research team developed a search strategy for identifying relevant literature and created a list of key search terms, authors, and related topics to focus the literature search. More than 70 search words, 40 authors, and 30 organizations were identified as salient. In addition to searching for these terms via online library databases, we also devised a plan to explore reports found on pertinent foundations and organization websites. Colleagues across the country were consulted to uncover additional research on student success that was less accessible through conventional means. We then searched electronic library databases that house the vast majority of references on undergraduate student experiences, precollege characteristics, and institutional conditions that foster student success. In addition, we examined relevant materials in the Indiana University Center for Postsecondary Research library and archives and findings from our ongoing survey work with several hundred colleges and universities nationwide. We were more inclusive with recent research articles and more selective with monographs, books, and articles that were 15 years or older. We sorted these documents into four broad categories: precollege characteristics, postsecondary educational experiences, institutional conditions, and postcollegiate outcomes. The approximate number of relevant documents reviewed for particular categories are as follows: precollege characteristics, 200; postsecondary educational experiences, 300; institutional conditions, 290; and postcollegiate outcomes, 130. The total number of relevant books and articles in these four categories exceeded 700 as many articles pertained to more than one category. Among the research team, we divided up responsibility for reviewing the documents. The research team met face to face periodically to develop and fine-tune the search strategy, discuss our approach to reviewing the literature, share emerging findings and trends, identify deficiencies in documents collected, and discuss our framework for the report. We developed a template to systematize our review of the literature in order to assess of the value of the respective piece for answering the guiding research questions and to summarize key findings. After reviewing the majority of the literature, team members then wrote up abstracts of key findings and insights from assigned categories of readings. Finally, as the major sections of the report were completed, team members reviewed all segments and developed the recommendations and propositions. Course Retention and Success: At what rate do students complete the individual courses in which they enroll? Success in Subsequent Coursework: How successful are students in courses that are linearly sequential especially in math, science, and English? Fall-to-Fall Persistence: At what rate do students continue their education one complete academic year to the next, in accordance with their educational goal? What percentage of full-time students attempt and complete the average credit hour load per term?
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Failure to collect data: In some instances, no actor may have the incentive or ability to collect and gather data. In fact, the desire to protect privacy can be its own spur to the development of innovative technologies to collect, manage, and use health data. Nevertheless, resolving this tension presents a substantial ongoing challenge, one familiar in the development of a learning health system more generally. This resolution will not be simple and is beyond the scope of this chapter; it will demand careful policymaking and continued engagement by stakeholders at various levels. Whatever agency is involved in oversight, compliance with regulations should be mandatory rather than voluntary, given the potential for problematic incentives for system developers (Evans and Whicher, 2018). Risk assessment to determine the degree to which dataset-specific biases affect the model should be undertaken. Regulatory agencies should recommend specific statistical methods for evaluating and mitigating bias. Government actors should invest in infrastructure that enables equitable, high-quality data collection, such as technical standards and technological capability building. Integrating reliability-centered maintenance studies with process hazard analyses. In Proceedings of the International Conference and Workshop on Reliability and Risk Management. Safety Analyses of Complex Systems: Considerations of Software, Firmware, Hardware, Human, and the Environment. Information bias in health research: Definition, pitfalls, and adjustment methods. A systems perspective towards an architecture framework for safe automated vehicles. A giant with feet of clay: On the validity of the data that feed machine learning in medicine. Non-Inferiority Clinical Trials to Establish Effectiveness-Guidance for Industry. Principles for Co-development of an In Vitro Companion Diagnostic Device with a Therapeutic Product-Draft Guidance. Changes to Existing Medical Software Policies Resulting from Section 3060 of the 21st Century Cures Act. Consideration of Uncertainty in Making Benefit-Risk Determinations in Medical Device Premarket Approvals, De Novo Classifications, and Humanitarian Device Exemptions-Draft Guidance. Fostering digital health innovation: Developing the Software Precertification Program-January 30-31, 2018-transcripts. Million Veteran Program: A mega-biobank to study genetic influences on health and disease. Opportunities and challenges in developing risk prediction models with electronic health records data: A systematic review. Software as a Medical Device: Possible Framework for Risk Categorization and Corresponding Considerations. Whole-genome association studies for multigenic diseases: Ethical dilemmas arising from commercialization-The case of genetic testing for autism. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences 376(2133). Interval estimation for the difference between independent proportions: Comparison of eleven methods. Two-sided confidence intervals for the single proportion: Comparison of seven methods.
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By the end of the training program, students should have enhanced their understanding of the immunological mechanisms involved in the generation and manifestation of allergic disease, their skills in diagnosis and interpretation of test results and their management of disease, applying the most up to date and appropriate methods. They will also have developed skills in the use of computing applied to healthcare. They will have gained understanding of research methodology and techniques, design of a research project, data analysis and presentation, literature searching and critical appraisal. These concise documents should be read by all students training in medicine and other health professions at an undergraduate level. It highlights all the allergy topics which need to be included in the training of medical students during their training curriculum. This includes lactose and other sugar intolerances, scromboid fish poisoning, and hereditary angioedema. This is most easily achieved by a blended learning structure where face-to-face teaching is provided in short blocks and the majority of learning is web-based. Such programs are produced that are available for a range of programs and can be adapted to suit the learning needs and level of individual trainees. However, in most parts of the world, allergy is not included in their training curricula. Allied health workers particularly in need of allergy education include pharmacists, nurses, dieticians, food scientists and paramedics. These professionals need to learn about and the presentation of common allergic diseases such as asthma, rhinitis, food allergy, drug allergy, atopic dermatitis, anaphylaxis and urticaria. In particular they should learn about the importance of specific allergy diagnosis. Pharmacists should be made aware of new global guidelines for management of asthma and rhinitis, as they are often the first health care worker to be approached by the patient, and of the dangers of sedating antihistamines; they should discourage the use of these medications for allergic rhinitis management. Dieticians need specific education in the field of food allergy, its diagnosis, cross reacting allergens and "hypo-allergenic" diets and the new approaches to allergy prevention and milk substitutes in infancy. Paramedics require training in the use of adrenaline in resuscitation for anaphylactic reactions and should be educated about latex allergy and alternative products to use in emergencies. The allergy nurse plays a vital role in the care of allergic patients in allergy clinics and proper training is required in asthma education. In addition, the allergy nurse plays a vital role in the administration and safety monitoring of allergen immunotherapy as well as the encouragement of compliance in allergy treatments, which are often long term. Food scientists need to be made aware of the dangers of hidden food allergens and the medical effects resulting from certain food preservatives in some patients. Education of allied health workers is best done by trained allergists and such training should be incorporated into the training curricula for these disciplines. The World Allergy Organization Web site provides education materials which can be used for this purpose. Patients need simple information on medications; costs and reimbursement; self-treatment; nutrition; environmental factors both indoor and outdoor; primary and secondary prevention; and quality of life. This should be achieved using student-centric teaching methods which employ language and methods appropriate for people with low literacy skills. In this field, future studies should focus on optimizing the potential benefits of educating high risk patients since they are at the highest lethal risk and often consume a disproportionate amount of health care resources. People with an allergy have to make important decisions when buying food, eating out, purchasing cosmetics, or managing their environment. Vague defensive warnings on labels for consumers with food allergy can lead to dangerous confusion and an unnecessary restriction of choice. Social difficulties caused by having a food allergy can sometimes make sufferers reluctant to take the necessary precautions; this is especially the case amongst teenagers.
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Patients should be evaluated for other sexually transmitted infections, including syphisyphilis and H ducreyi frequently are cotransmitted, serologic testing for syphilis also should be repeated if initially negative. The disease occurs worldwide, but in tropical and less developed areas, disease occurs earlier in life than in industrialized countries in temperate climates. The term psittacosis com- monly is used, although the term ornithosis more accurately describes the potential for nearly all domestic and wild birds to spread this infection, not just psittacine birds (eg, is associated with an increased incidence of disease in humans because shipping, crowding, and other stress factors may increase shedding of the organism among birds with latent infection. Pet owners and workers at poultry slaughter plants, poultry farms, and pet shops are at increased risk of infection. Psittacosis is worldwide in distribution and tends to occur sporadically in any season. Additionally, nucleic acid ampliC psittaci from other chlamydial species and are under investigation for detection of C psittaci from human clinical samples. Tetracycline-based anti- microbial agents, including doxycycline, may cause permanent tooth discoloration for cline binds less readily to calcium compared with older tetracyclines, and in some studies, doxycycline was not associated with visible teeth staining in younger children (see recommended for younger children and pregnant women. All potentially contaminated caging and housing areas should be disinfected thoroughly before reuse to eliminate any infectious organisms. Pneumonia in young infants usually is an afebrile illness of insidious onset occurring in an afebrile 1-month-old infant are characteristic but not always present. Genitourinary tract manifestations, such as vaginitis in prepubertal girls; urethrisyndrome) in postpubertal females; urethritis, epididymitis, and proctitis in males; in ectopic pregnancy, infertility, or chronic pelvic pain. Blindness secondary to exten- 1 Compendium of Measures to Control Chlamydophila psittaci Infection Among Humans (Psittacosis) and Pet Birds (Avian Chlamydiosis), 2008. The possibility of sexual abuse always should be considered in prepubertal children beyond infancy who have vaginal, urethral, or rectal chlamydial infection. Sexual abuse is not limited to prepubertal children, and chlamydial infections can result from sexual abuse/assault in postpubertal adolescents as well. Asymptomatic infection of the nasopharynx, conjunctivae, vagina, and rectum can be acquired at birth. Nasopharyngeal cultures have been observed to remain positive for infection acquired at birth. C trachomatis testing of pharyngeal specimens from asymptomatic postoropharyngeal C trachomatis infection is unclear. A diagnosis of C trachomatis infection in an infant should prompt treatment of the mother and her sexual partner(s). An association between orally administered erythromycin and infantile hypertrophic investigation and because alternative therapies are not as well studied, the American Academy of Pediatrics continues to recommend use of erythromycin for treatment of diseases caused by C trachomatis. Infants born to mothers known to have untreated chlamydial infection are at high risk of infection; however, prophylactic antimicrobial treatment is not indicated, because the appropriate treatment if infection develops. Alternatives include oral erythromycin base (500 mg, 4 times/day) for 7 days, erythromycin ethylsuccinate (800 mg, 4 times/day) for 7 days, For children who weigh <45 kg, the recommended regimen is oral erythromycin base or ethylsuccinate, 50 mg/kg/day, divided into 4 doses daily for 14 days. For children 8 years and older, the recommended regimen is azithromycin, 1 g, orally, in a single dose, or doxycycline, 100 mg, orally, twice a day for 7 days. For pregnant females, the recommended treatment is azithromycin (1 g, orally, as a single dose). Test-of cure is not recommended for nonpregnant adult or adolescent patients treated for uncomplicated chlamydial infection unless compliance is in question, symptoms persist, or reinfection is suspected. Treatment of trachoma people diagnosed with trachoma as well as for all of their household contacts. C trachomatis genital tract infection during pregnancy can prevent disease in the infant. Four naturally occurring forms of human botulism exist: infant, foodborne, wound, and adult intestinal colonization. Some reports suggest that sudden infant death could result from rapidly progressing infant botulism. C botulinum contaminates traumatized tissue, germinates, multiplies, and produces toxin. During the last decade, self-injection of contaminated black tar heroin has been associated with most cases. The usual incubation period for foodborne botulism is incubation period is estimated at 3 to 30 days from the time of ingestion of spores. For wound botulism, the incubation period is 4 to 14 days from time of injury until onset of symptoms.
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Females Males Overall Australia Canada Denmark France Germany Italy Mexico Russia Sweden Turkey United Kingdom United States of America 12. Despite the rise in the number of women who work outside of the home, there are some career fields that are still pursued more by men than women. Jobs held by women still tend to cluster in the service sector, such as education, nursing, and child-care worker. While in more technical and scientific careers, women are greatly outnumbered by men. Jobs that have been traditionally held by women tend to have lower status, pay, benefits, and job security (Bosson, et al. In recent years, women have made inroads into fields once dominated by males, and today women are almost as likely as men to become medical doctors or lawyers. Despite these changes, women are more likely to have lower-status, and thus less pay than men in these professions. For instance, women are more likely to be a family practice doctor than a surgeon or are less likely to make partner in a law firm (Ceci & Williams, 2007). Sexism can affect any sex that is marginalized or oppressed in a society; however, it is particularly documented as affecting females. It has been linked to stereotypes and gender roles and includes the belief that males are intrinsically superior to other sexes and genders. Extreme sexism may foster sexual harassment, rape, and other forms of sexual violence. In the United States, women are less likely to be hired or promoted in male-dominated professions, such as engineering, aviation, and construction (Blau, Ferber, & Winkler, 2010; Ceci & Williams, 2011). In many areas of the world, young girls are not given the same access to nutrition, healthcare, and education as boys. For example, women are expected to be friendly, passive, and nurturing; when a woman behaves in an unfriendly or assertive manner, she may be disliked or perceived as aggressive because she has violated a gender role (Rudman, 1998). In contrast, a man behaving in a similarly unfriendly or assertive way might be perceived as strong or even gain respect in some circumstances. Amid the cheering at the end of the final match between the United States and the Netherlands, were chants of "equal pay" (Channick, 2019). Throughout the tournament, attention was focused on the discrepancy between what male soccer players earned compared to the female players. Factors Affecting Wage Inequality: There are many possible explanations for the wage gap. Men with less than high school to men with graduate degree earn more than women with the same level of education. Instead, occupational segregation is a likely contributor to the overall wage gap, as women tend to work in very different occupations than men, and those jobs tend to have lower wages. In addition, the entry of women into a field tends to reduce the wages and prestige of the job. Mandel (2013) found that jobs typically held by men who saw the biggest influx of women into those careers, also saw the biggest drop in wages. Sticky floors, which keep low-wage workers, who are more likely to be Wage Gap women and minorities, from being 102 promoted contribute to lower wages (Bosson, et al. Men are not only being paid more in more masculine jobs, but also in jobs typically held by women. However, people perceive women who negotiate more negatively then they do men, as assertive women, but not men, are more likely to be penalized. Women are also less likely to relocate for the sake of their families when a better job offer comes along, and employers know this. It has been suggested that one reason why males may be offered more money is to keep them from leaving (Baldridge, Eddleston, & Vega, 2006). Barriers to Positions of Power: There are a few barriers to women achieving positions of power. The glass ceiling is the invisible barrier that keeps women and minorities from rising to higher positions regardless of their qualifications (Bosson et al. In addition, Noland and colleagues found that in a study of nearly 22,000 companies worldwide, in 77% of those firms only 30% of women held an executive position or board seat. Some researchers see the root cause of this situation in the tacit discrimination based on gender, conducted by current top executives and corporate directors, who are primarily male. For instance, some argue that the gender role stereotypes cast managerial positions as "masculine".
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Anecdotally, pica appears to be concentrated among those whose autism is complicated by intellectual disability. It can include swallowing sharp objects such as nails, broken glass and pins, as well as poisonous substances such as paint chips and swimming pool chlorine tablets. Children who meet two or more of the following criteria for a feeding disorder warrant a medical referral to a feeding specialist for evaluation and treatment, according to pediatric psychologist Kimberly Brown, director the Pediatric Feeding Disorders Program at the University of Rochester Kirch Developmental Services Center. Many autism specialty clinics employ a team approach to help children with feeding problems. These teams typically include a pediatrician, dietician and one or more therapists (occupational, behavioral and/or speech). Team members watch the child eat and screen for underlying medical and motor issues. During visits, one or more therapists will work with the child on improving feeding skills and/or gradually broadening food choices and tolerance. The therapist also teaches parents strategies to use at home, while monitoring progress. Of the 5,053 children with autism in the study, nearly a third (32 percent) of 2 to 5 year olds were overweight, compared to less than a quarter (23 percent) of 2- to 5-year-olds in the general population. Sixteen percent of 2- to 5-year-olds with autism were medically obese, compared to 10 percent of 2- to 5-year- olds in the general population. The investigators found that the likelihood of being overweight or obese increased with the number of psychoactive behavioral medicines a child or teen was taking. Sometimes this involves removing high-calorie foods from the home entirely or locking refrigerators and pantries. Behavioral therapists experienced with autism can help families use autism-friendly communication tools and daily schedules to help curb overeating while increasing nutrition and exercise. However, many people with autism enjoy more-solitary physical activity such as running, bicycling and swimming. At the same time, food restriction and increased exercise can prove particularly difficult for some people who have autism. Given the long-term health consequences of obesity, we urgently need more research aimed at solutions to this complex issue. Fortunately, research also suggests that pica can be decreased with behavioral therapy, once possible medical causes have been ruled out by a physician. These materials are the product of on-going activities of the Autism Speaks Autism Treatment Network, a funded program of Autism Speaks. But because of overlapping symptoms, they can be particularly difficult to identify in someone who has autism. In addition, many people with autism have difficulty identifying and expressing emotions and other internal feelings. In recent years, autism specialists have developed guidelines for diagnosing and treating some of the most common mental health conditions affecting children, teens and adults who have autism. Nonetheless, research continues to find that diagnosis of either one of these disorders tends to significantly delay the diagnosis and treatment of the other. The guidelines emphasize that decisions about using such medications are highly personal and should involve the individual and/or parents in a meaningful evaluation of goals and values. Studies suggest that between 11 and 42 percent of people with autism struggle with one or more anxiety disorders.
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Those who are married tend to have higher levels of education, and thus higher earnings, or earning potential. In 1995 the median length of the cohabitation relationship was 13 months, whereas it was 22 months by 2010. Cohabitation for all racial/ethnic groups, except for Asian women increased between 1995 and 2010 (see Table 7. Forty percent of the cohabitations transitioned into marriage within three years, 32% were still cohabitating, and 27% of cohabitating relationships had dissolved within the three years. Three explanations have been given for the rise of cohabitation in Western cultures. The first notes that the increase in individualism and secularism, and the resulting decline in religious observance, has led to greater acceptance and adoption of cohabitation (Lesthaeghe & Surkyn, 1988). Moreover, the more people view cohabitating couples, the more normal this relationship becomes, and the more couples who will then cohabitate. A final explanation suggests that the change in employment requirements, with many jobs now requiring more advanced education, has led to a competition between marriage and pursuing post-secondary education (Yu & Xie, 2015). Taken together, the greater acceptance of premarital sex, and the economic and educational changes would lead to a transition in relationships. Overall, cohabitation may become a step in the courtship process or may, for some, replace marriage altogether. Similar increases in cohabitation have also occurred in other industrialized countries. For example, rates are high in Great Britain, Australia, Sweden, Denmark, and Finland. In fact, more children in Sweden are born to cohabiting couples than to married couples. The lowest rates of cohabitation in industrialized countries are in Ireland, Italy, and Japan (Benokraitis, 2005). Cohabitation in Non-Western Cultures, the Philippines and China: Similar to other nations, young people in the Philippines are more likely to delay marriage, to cohabitate, and to engage in premarital sex as compared to previous generations (Williams, Kabamalan, & Ogena, 2007). Despite these changes, many young people are still not in favor of these practices. Moreover, there is still a persistence of traditional gender norms as there are stark differences in the acceptance of sexual behavior out of wedlock for men and women in Philippine society. In China, young adults are cohabitating in higher numbers than in the past (Yu & Xie, 2015). Unlike many Western cultures, in China adults with higher, rather than lower, levels of education are more likely to cohabitate. Yu and Xie suggest this may be due to seeing cohabitation as being a more "innovative" behavior and that those who are more highly educated may have had more exposure to Western culture. This decline has occurred in both poor and rich countries, however, the countries with the biggest drops in marriage were mostly rich: France, Italy, Germany, Japan and the U. Cohen states that the decline is not only due to individuals delaying marriage, but also because of high rates of nonmarital cohabitation. Delayed or reduced marriage is associated with higher income and lower fertility rates that are reflected worldwide. Marriage in the United States: In 1960, 72% of adults age 18 or older were married, in 2010 this had dropped to barely half (Wang & Taylor, 2011). At the same time, the age of first marriage has been increasing for both men and women. Many of the explanations for increases in singlehood and cohabitation previously given can also account for the drop and delay in marriage. Same-Sex Marriage: In June 26, 2015, the United States Supreme Court ruled that the Constitution guarantees same-sex marriage. This ruling occurred 11 years after same-sex marriage was first made legal in Massachusetts, and at the time of the high court decision, 36 states and the District of Columbia had legalized same sex marriage. Worldwide, 29 countries currently have national laws allowing gays and lesbians Photo Courtesy Salvor Gissurardottir to marry (Pew Research Center, 2019). Rules of endogamy indicate the groups we should marry within and those we should not marry in (Witt, 2009). For example, many cultures specify that people marry within their own race, social class, age group, or religion.
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Thus, average 2-year-olds may be able to run with slightly better coordination than they managed as a toddler, yet they would have difficulty peddling a tricycle, something the typical 3-year-old can do. We see similar changes in fine motor skills with 4-year-olds who no longer struggle to put on Source their clothes, something they may have had problems with two years earlier. Motor skills continue to develop into middle childhood, but for those in early childhood, play that deliberately involves these skills is emphasized. Starting with about 20 different types of scribbles at age 2, children move on to experimenting with the placement of scribbles on the page. By age 3 they are using the basic structure of scribbles to create shapes and are beginning to combine these shapes to create more complex images. By 4 or 5 children are creating images that are more recognizable representations of the world. These changes are a function of improvement in motor skills, perceptual development, and cognitive understanding of the world (Cote & Golbeck, 2007). The authors suggest that cultural norms of non-Western traditionally rural cultures, 117 which emphasize the social group rather than the individual, may be one of the factors for the smaller size of the figures compared to the larger figures from children in the Western cultures which emphasize the individual. Some children show interest by age 2, but others may not be ready until months later. The average age for girls to be toilet trained is 29 months and for boys it is 31 months, and 98% of children are trained by 36 months (Boyse & Fitzgerald, 2010). If a child resists being trained, or it is not successful after a few weeks, it is best to take a break and try again later. Most children master daytime bladder control first, typically within two to three months of consistent toilet training. Elimination disorders include: enuresis, or the repeated voiding of urine into bed or clothes (involuntary or intentional) and encopresis, the repeated passage of feces into inappropriate places (involuntary or intentional) (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). The prevalence of enuresis is 5%-10% for 5-year-olds, 3%-5% for 10-year-olds and approximately 1% for those 15 years of age or older. Around 1% of 5-yearolds have encopresis, and it is more common in males than females. Sleep During early childhood, there is wide variation in the number of hours of sleep recommended per day. For example, two-year-olds may still need 15-16 hours per day, while a six-year-old may only need 7-8 hours. However, to associate the elements of seduction, power, love, or lust that is part of the adult meanings of sexuality would be inappropriate. Sexuality begins in childhood as a response to physical states and sensation and cannot be interpreted as similar to that of adults in any way (Carroll, 2007). Infancy: Boys and girls are capable of erections and vaginal lubrication even before birth (Martinson, 1981). Arousal can signal overall physical contentment and stimulation that accompanies feeding or warmth. Infants begin to explore their bodies and touch their genitals as soon as they have the sufficient motor skills. This stimulation is for comfort or to relieve tension rather than to reach orgasm (Carroll, 2007). Early Childhood: Self-stimulation is common in early childhood for both boys and girls. As children grow, they are more likely to show their genitals to siblings or peers, and to take off their clothes and touch each other (Okami, Olmstead, & Abramson, 1997). Boys are often shown by other boys how to masturbate, but girls tend to find out accidentally.
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American Psychiatric Association: Glossary of Technical Terms, in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition. American Psychiatric Association: Resource document on involuntary outpatient commitment and related programs of assisted outpatient treatment. American Psychiatric Association: Practice Guidelines for the Psychiatric Evaluation of Adults, 3rd Edition. American Public Health Association: Solitary confinement as a public health issue. J Clin Psychopharmacol 37(6):651-656, 2017 29016375 Angell B, Matthews E, Barrenger S, et al: Engagement processes in model programs for community reentry from prison for people with serious mental illness. Int J Law Psychiatry 37(5):490-500, 2014 24650496 Angus S, Sugars J, Boltezar R, et al: A controlled trial of amantadine hydrochloride and neuroleptics in the treatment of tardive dyskinesia. Am J Psychiatry 145(8):993-996, 1988 2899403 Aripiprazole orally disintegrating tablets [prescribing information]. J Clin Psychiatry 67(7):1114-1123, 2006 16889456 Aune D, Sen A, Norat T, et al: Body mass index, abdominal fatness, and heart failure incidence and mortality: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies. Circulation 133(7):639-649, 2016 26746176 Austedo (deutetrabenazine) tablets [prescribing information]. Am J Community Psychol 46(3-4):361-375, 2010 20865315 Bak M, Fransen A, Janssen J, et al: Almost all antipsychotics result in weight gain: a meta-analysis. Schizophr Bull 32 Suppl 1:S1-9, 2006 16920788 25 Bebbington P, Jakobowitz S, McKenzie N, et al: Assessing needs for psychiatric treatment in prisoners: 1. Int J Cardiol 259:122-129, 2018 29579587 Bellou V, Belbasis L, Tzoulaki I, Evangelou E: Risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus: An exposure-wide umbrella review of meta-analyses. McNeil Consumer Healthcare, June 2018 Benztropine injection [prescribing information]. Psychosom Med 76(3):215-220, 2014 24677164 Bergman H, Soares-Weiser K: Anticholinergic medication for antipsychotic-induced tardive dyskinesia. Br J Psychiatry Suppl 51:s140-146, 2007 18055932 Bertilsson L: Metabolism of antidepressant and neuroleptic drugs by cytochrome p450s: clinical and interethnic aspects. Ann Pharmacother 45(5):667-675, 2011 21540404 Bishara D, Olofinjana O, Sparshatt A, et al: Olanzapine: a systematic review and meta-regression of the relationships between dose, plasma concentration, receptor occupancy, and response. Clin Neuropharmacol 6 Suppl 1:S57-63, 1983 6139167 Bouchama A, Dehbi M, Mohamed G, et al: Prognostic factors in heat wave related deaths: a metaanalysis. Am J Psychiatry 163(3):418-425, 2006 16513862 Bowtell M, Eaton S, Thien K, et al: Rates and predictors of relapse following discontinuation of antipsychotic medication after a first episode of psychosis. Schizophr Bull 36(1):71-93, 2010 Buchanan A, Sint K, Swanson J, Rosenheck R: Correlates of future violence in people being treated for schizophrenia. Psychiatr Serv 67(12):1370-1372, 2016 27476806 Buhagiar K, Jabbar F: Association of first- vs. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for medication-resistant psychosis: a meta-analytic review. Acta Psychiatr Scand 93(2):129-136, 1996a Bush G, Fink M, Petrides G, et al: Catatonia. Acta Psychiatr Scand 93(2):137-143, 1996b 8686484 Bushe C, Paton C: the potential impact of antipsychotics on lipids in schizophrenia: is there enough evidence to confirm a link? World Psychiatry 17(3):330340, 2018 30192088 Carney R, Cotter J, Firth J, et al: Cannabis use and symptom severity in individuals at ultra high risk for psychosis: a meta-analysis.
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Nevertheless, early and complete avoidance of further exposure to the sensitizing occupational agent remains the most effective therapeutic approach4. Cessation of exposure implies either potentially expensive workplace interventions or relocation of affected workers to non-exposed jobs. Table 15 - Principal Agents And Occupations Causing Contact Urticaria And Dermatitis 74 Pawankar, Canonica, Holgate, Lockey and Blaiss There is accumulating evidence that the workplace environment substantially contributes to the global burden of allergic diseases. Occupational allergic diseases represent a public health concern due to their high prevalence and their socioeconomic impact. Approximately 15% of asthma in adults is attributable to the workplace environment. Allergic contact dermatitis is one of the leading causes of occupational diseases. Besides their health consequences, occupational allergic diseases are associated with substantial adverse financial consequences for affected workers, employers, and society as a whole. It has been 6 estimated that 15% of adult asthma is attributable to allergens encountered in the workplace7. Estimates of the annual incidence of occupational contact dermatitis in the general population range from 130 to 850 cases per million individuals. Occupational allergic diseases are likely to be more prevalent and severe in some developing countries than in industrialized countries, since obsolete technologies are still extensively used and occupational diseases are even less recognized as a public health concern10. Once initiated, the symptoms recur on re-exposure to the causal agent at concentrations not affecting other similarly exposed individuals. Subjects with work-related asthma symptoms have a slightly lower quality of life than those with non-occupational asthma; even after removal from exposure to the offending agent16. A worse quality of life seems to be related to unemployment and a lower level of asthma control16. Persistence of exposure to the sensitizing agent is associated with a progressive worsening of asthma, even when the patients are treated with inhaled corticosteroids2,4. Avoidance of exposure to the causal agent is associated with an improvement of asthma, although more than 60% of affected workers remain symptomatic and require anti-asthma medication3. Prolonged exposure after the onset of symptoms and more severe asthma at the time of avoidance are associated with a worse outcome. Complete avoidance of exposure to the sensitizing agent results in a significant decrease in asthma severity and in health care expenses as compared with persistence of exposure3. Adding the use of inhaled agent may provide a slight improvement in asthma symptoms, quality of life, and airway obstruction, especially when the treatment is initiated early after the diagnosis. Although medical resource utilization decreases after removal from exposure at the causal workplace, there is still an excess rate of visits to physicians and emergency rooms compared to other asthmatics. There is little information on the direct healthcare cost resulting from occupational skin diseases. The specific impact of work-related rhinitis and its contribution to the global burden of rhinitis in the general population remain largely unknown and need to be investigated further. The interactions between the skin and airway responses to the workplace environment should be explored further. Evidence based guidelines for the prevention, identification, and management of occupational asthma. Occupational contact dermatitis: etiology, prevalence, and resultant impairment/disability. American Thoracic Society Statement: Occupational contribution to the burden of airway disease. Characteristics and medical resource use of asthmatic subjects with and without work-related asthma. Preliminary report of mortality among workers compensated for work- related asthma. The global burden of non-malignant respiratory disease due to occupational airborne exposures.