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Initially 50cc blood should be removed prior to reassessment and then 25 cc increments should be removed until hemodynamic improvement. You can leave catheter in place using Seldinger technique if you have the equipment. Position paper states patients with penetrating trauma and no signs of spinal injury should not be immobilized on a long spine board. Blunt trauma: patients with altered mental status, neurologic deficit, intoxication, or suspected extremity fracture were more likely to have spinal injuries. Another paper suggests that extremes of age, language barriers, and midline or paraspinal pain, in addition to the above mentioned criteria, should be considered for full immobilization. The position paper includes the concept that spinal immobilization does not require use of the long spine board. Complications: respiratory compromise, vascular occlusion, and patient comfort if not properly fitting Backboard Indications: Position paper states this may be appropriate in blunt trauma with altered mental status, spinal pain or tenderness, a neurologic complaint, anatomical deformity of the spine, a high-energy mechanism, intoxication, inability to communicate with the patient, or a distracting injury Long spine board: application is with log roll. Mattress is pumped up several times, and then molded to patient with special attention around the head, and straps are placed. Jump to Contents 80 Extrication device: After application of c-collar and placement of device behind the patient, straps are secured in this order: Middle torso, bottom torso, legs, top torso, head. Complications: Discomfort, increased utilization of radiology, decubitus ulcers, risk of respiratory compromise. Time of spinal immobilization should be limited, especially in high risk patients. Children: Use undamaged car seats if the child is already immobilized in one and does not require further assessment or care. Increased blood volume may lead to prolonged compensation for major blood loss, but followed by rapid decompensation. Note: the passage of tissue does not distinguish miscarriage from ruptured ectopic. Placental abruption should be considered in women who present with vaginal bleeding +/- abdominal pain, a history of trauma, or appear to be in preterm labor. Determine presence of risk factors: cocaine/drug use, hypertension, preeclampsia, etc. Classic presentation of placenta previa is painless bleeding in late second or early third trimester, though bleeding can be painful. Prophylactic use of magnesium in patients with preeclampsia may reduce risk of eclampsia and maternal death. Jump to Contents 83 43 Normal childbirth, 318 Pertinent historical information (see previous chapter) Exam: If signs of active labor (regular contractions, urge to defecate or push, rupture of membranes, etc. Basic care of outborn neonate includes suctioning of mouth and pharynx if inadequate respirations, gentle stimulation of feet or back, drying, and warming. Protocols should reflect the fact that "minor" trauma can cause placental abruption. Jump to Contents 84 44 Childbirth emergencies, 322 Request for additional resources should be made as soon as crews encounter a multiple gestation birth, an abnormal presentation, or any other childbirth emergency. Umbilical cord prolapse: priority is manual elevation of the presenting part, positioning mother in knee-tochest or steep Trendelenburg to ease pressure on the cord, and rapid transport to appropriate facility. If the cord is too tightly wrapped, the nares and mouth should be suctioned while the cord is double-clamped in preparation to cut the cord. If head entrapment occurs, the provider may place fingers gently on the maxilla to flex the neck and facilitate delivery of the head. Shoulder dystocia: should be suspected with the "turtle sign" (movement of fetal head backwards into introitus), or when delivery does not complete with gentle downward movement of fetal head. Primary focus of prehospital effort should be positioning and gentle suprapubic pressure to attempt to reduce anterior shoulder impaction. Postpartum hemorrhage: Treatment starts with with fundal massage for uterine atony.
She represents the cyborg as a world-changing fiction for women and a resource for escaping the myths of progress and organic history. They supposedly make up a future, fortunate race, but in fact they exist everywhere today. Our cyborgs are people with disabilities, and Haraway does not shy away from the comparison. Severe disability is her strongest example of complex hybridization: "Perhaps paraplegics and other severely-handicapped people can (and sometimes do) have the most intense experiences of complex hybridization with other communication devices" (178). Moreover, she views the prosthetic device as a fundamental category for preparing the self and body to meet the demands of the information age. Haraway is so preoccupied with power and ability that she forgets what disability is. Disabled bodies are so unusual and bend the rules of representation to such extremes that they must mean something extraordinary. They quickly become sources of fear and fascination for able-bodied people, who cannot bear to look at the unruly sight before them but also cannot bear not to look. I wore a steel leg brace throughout my childhood, and one early summer evening, an angry neighborhood boy challenged me to a fistfight, but he had one proviso: he wanted me to remove my steel brace because he thought it would give me unfair advantage. I had hardly the strength to lift my leg into a kick, let alone the ability to do him harm. I refused to remove the brace because I knew that at some point in the fight this angry boy or someone else would steal my brace from the ground and run away with it, and I would be left both helpless and an object of ridicule for the surrounding mob of children. I know the truth about the myth of the cyborg, about how able-bodied people try to represent disability as a marvelous advantage, because I am a cyborg myself. It pits the mind against the body in ways that make the opposition between thought and ideology in most current body theory seem trivial. It offers few resources for resisting ideological constructions of masculinity and femininity, the erotic monopoly of the genitals, the violence of ego, or the power of capital. Theories that encourage these interpretations are not only unrealistic about pain; they contribute to an ideology of ability that marginalizes people with disabilities and makes their stories of suffering and victimization both politically impotent and difficult to believe. These Blunt, Crude Realities I have been using, deliberately, the words reality and real to describe the disabled body, but we all know that the real has fallen on hard times. The German idealists disabled the concept once and for all in the eighteenth century. More recently, the theory of social construction has made it impossible to refer to "reality" without the scare quotes we all use so often. Advocates of reality risk appearing philosophically naive or politically reactionary. This is as true for disability studies as for other areas of cultural and critical theory. And yet the word is creeping back into usage in disability studies, even among the most careful thinkers. Disability activists are prone to refer to the difficult physical realities faced by people with Disability in Theory 179 disabilities. Art works concerning disability or created by artists with disabilities do not hesitate to represent the ragged edges and blunt angles of the disabled body in a matter of fact way (see, for example, Jim Ferris and David Hevey). Their methods are deliberate and detailed, as if they are trying to get people to see something that is right before their eyes and yet invisible to most. The testimony of sufferers of disability includes gritty accounts of their pain and daily humiliations-a sure sign of the rhetoric of realism. Cheryl Marie Wade provides a powerful but not untypical example of the new realism of the body: To put it bluntly-because this need is blunt as it gets-we must have our asses cleaned after we shit and pee. Or we have tubes of plastic inserted inside us to assist peeing or we have re-routed anuses and pissers so we do it all into bags attached to our bodies. We rarely talk about these things, and when we do the realities are usually disguised in generic language or gimp humor.
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Drinking a glass of orange juice with breakfast cereal will increase the absorption of the non-heme iron in the cereal. Avoid taking zinc or calcium supplements or drinking milk when eating iron-rich foods, as iron absorption will be impaired. Finally, cooking foods in cast-iron pans will significantly increase the iron content of any meal. Iron Transport Regardless of the form, iron taken into the enterocytes becomes part of the total iron pool. From this pool the iron can be stored within the enterocytes or it can be transported across the membrane of the enterocytes by ferroportin into the interstitial fluid, from which it can enter the circulation. Ferroportin is an iron transporter that helps regulate intestinal iron absorption and release. This Fe3 is rapidly bound to transferrin, the primary iron-transport protein in the blood, which transports the Fe3 to cells of the body. Iron Storage the body is capable of storing small amounts of iron in two storage forms: ferritin and hemosiderin. These storage forms of iron provide us with iron when our diets are inadequate or when our needs are high. Ferritin is the normal storage form, whereas hemosiderin storage occurs predominately in conditions of iron overload. However, if an iron overload occurs, and excess iron is stored as hemosiderin in the heart and liver, organ damage can occur. The amount of iron stored can vary dramatically between men and women, with women at greater risk for having low iron stores (from 300 to 1,000 mg). Women of childbearing age have one of the highest rates of iron deficiency, which is attributed to increased iron losses in menstrual blood, poor intakes of iron, and the additional iron requirements that accompany pregnancy. The iron "cost" of pregnancy is high; thus, a woman of childbearing age should have good iron stores prior to pregnancy and consume iron-rich foods during pregnancy. Iron supplements are routinely prescribed during the last two trimesters to ensure that there is adequate iron for the woman and her developing fetus. Regulation of Total Body Iron the body regulates iron balance and homeostasis through three mechanisms: · Iron absorption. As discussed earlier, the change in iron absorption rate is based on the amount of iron consumed, the amount needed by the body, and the dietary factors that affect absorption. One of the major routes of iron loss is through the turnover of the gut enterocytes. Every 3 to 6 days, the gut cells are shed and lost into the lumen of the intestine. In this way, the iron stored as ferritin within the enterocytes is returned to the lumen, from which it is lost in the feces. The regulation of iron absorption in this way dramatically reduces the possibility of too much iron entering the system, regardless of the iron source. Iron can also be lost in blood (menses, blood donations, injury), sweat, semen, and passively from cells that are shed from the skin and urinary tract. Stored iron gives the body access to iron to maintain health when intakes of dietary iron are low or losses are great. Conversely, once iron balance has been restored, the body will gradually increase the amount of iron stored so that reserves are again available in times of need. The iron supplied through recycling is approximately twenty times greater than the amount of iron absorbed from the diet. The higher iron requirement for younger women is due to the excess iron and blood lost during menstruation. Although it is difficult to get too much iron from whole foods, it is easy to get high doses of iron from supplements and/or the use of highly fortified processed foods such as meal-replacement drinks, energy bars, and protein powders. Special circumstances that significantly affect iron status and may increases requirements are identified in Table 12.
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The large number of stigmatizable attributes and several taxonomies of stigmas in the literature offer further evidence of how arbitrary the selection of undesired differences may be (see Ainlay & Crosby; Becker & Arnold; Solomon; Stafford & Scott). As we move out of one social context where a difference is desired into another context where the difference is undesired, we begin to feel the effects of stigma. Coleman this conceptualization of stigma also indicates that those possessing power, the dominant group, can determine which human differences are desired and undesired. Many people, however, especially those who have some role in determining the desired and undesired differences of the zeitgeist, often think of stigma only as a property of individuals. They operate under the illusion that stigma exists only for certain segments of the population. Given that human differences serve as the basis for stigmas, being or feeling stigmatized is virtually an inescapable fate. It becomes evident that it is mere chance whether a person is born into a nonstigmatized or severely stigmatized group. Because stigmatization often occurs within the confines of a psychologically constructed or actual social relationship, the experience itself reflects relative comparisons, the contrasting of desired and undesired differences. Assuming that flawless people do not exist, relative comparisons give rise to a feeling of superiority in some contexts (where one possesses a desired trait that another person is lacking) but perhaps a feeling of inferiority in other contexts (where one lacks a desired trait that another person possesses). It is also important to note that it is only when we make comparisons that we can feel different. For this reason, stigma represents a continuum of undesired differences that depend upon many factors. Although some stigmatized conditions appear escapable or may be temporary, some undesired traits have graver social consequences than others. Being a medical resident, being a new professor, being 7 feet tall, having cancer, being black, or being physically disfigured or mentally retarded can all lead to feelings of stigmatization (feeling discredited or devalued in a particular role), but obviously these are not equally stigmatizing conditions. The degree of stigmatization might depend on how undesired the difference is in a particular social group. Physical abnormalities, for example, may be the most severely stigmatized differences because they are physically salient, represent some deficiency or distortion in the bodily form, and in most cases are unalterable. Other physically salient differences, such as skin color or nationality, are considered very stigmatizing because they also are permanent conditions and cannot be changed. A white American could feel temporarily stigmatized when visiting Japan due to a difference in height. A black student could feel stigmatized in a predominantly white university because the majority of the students are white and white skin is a desired trait. But a black student in a predominantly black university is not likely to feel the effects of stigma. Thus, the sense of being stigmatized or having a stigma is inextricably tied to social context. Of equal importance are the norms in that context that determine which are desirable and undesirable attributes. Moving from one social or cultural context to another can change both the definitions and the consequences of stigma. Part of the power of stigmatization lies in the realization that people who are stigmatized or acquire a stigma lose their place in the social hierarchy. Consequently, most people want to ensure that they are counted in the nonstigmatized "majority. It seems that this relationship is vital to understanding the stigmatizing process. In order for one person to feel superior, there must be another person who is perceived to be or who actually feels inferior. Stigmatized people are needed in order for the many nonstigmatized people to feel good about themselves. On the other hand, there are many stigmatized people who feel inferior and concede that other persons are superior because they possess certain attributes. In order for the process to occur (for Stigma 143 one person to stigmatize another and have the stigmatized person feel the effects of stigma), there must be some agreement that the differentness is inherently undesirable.
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Moreover, offering White Disability Studies, even in the form of a tongue-in-cheek modest proposal, is bound to unnerve many of the individuals who consider themselves engaged in Disability Studies. White Disability Studies will most likely strike these individuals as a hyperbolic and counterintuitive claim. I think it is tactless to dismiss a message solely because of its ostensible unpopularity or because the individual bearing the message seems undesirable. Such a process is itself counterintuitive, intended to draw attention away from a message that, while perhaps unpopular, might contain more than a modicum of validity. Because Disability Studies in its current incarnation is White Disability Studies, proposing we honor that creates no crisis of conscience for me. If anything, I take heart in remembering what Bubba Gump declared to Dorian Gray on "Check, Please! Far from excluding people of color, White Disability Studies treats people of color as if they were white people; as if there are no critical exigencies involved in being people of color that might necessitate these individuals understanding and negotiating disability in a different way from their white counterparts. Reader: If you think it odd that our feelings of solidiarity were premised on disinvitation, realize that this is a reality of many people of color engaged in White Disability Studies. Coincidentally, the people of color caucuses at both conferences presented their list of action items in the exact same space, the Mary Ward Hall at San Francisco State University. Briefly, the "post-race debate" argues that race is no longer a valid social construct or marker. By that light, the culture as a whole should move on and focus on other, purportedly more pressing issues. I can deconstruct the entire post-race argument by simply pointing out that in a culture where racism exists and is pervasive, the casual dismissal of race is specious. It is difficult to offer a counternarrative when the structures of power determining which identities comprise a subject are unyielding in their conception. There is an abundance of special topics, none of which verge on what is, to me, one of the more obvious absences in the discourse. Foundational work in this field has stressed the formation and assertion of positive disability identities. It has also underscored the distinction between illness and disability, discribing disability in terms of visible bodily difference rather than sickness or suffering. They form the basis of a scholarship that has redefined disability, demonstrating that it is best understood not as a biological given, but rather as a social process requiring sustained intellectual and political attention. Most important, Willow Weep for Me makes it clear that disability studies, which has tended to define disability as a visual, objectively observable phenomenon, must also carefully attend to the phenomenological aspects of impairment, particularly those that involve suffering and illness. Such attention will necessitate developing more nuanced ways of describing intersections of multiple forms of oppression than have predominated in the most influential disability scholarship. In order apprehend the significance of Willow Weep for Me, a critical method that can account for intersections of multiple forms of oppression is crucial. When Rosemarie GarlandThomson characterizes disability as a "form of ethnicity," or when Lennard J. Wildman have argued, "like race" analogies often have the effect of "obscuring the importance of race," enabling the group making the analogy to take "center stage from people of color" (621). Moreover, such analogies assume a false separation between the forms of oppression being compared. As Grillo and Wildman point out in their discussion of analogies between race and gender, "[a]nalogizing sex discrimination to race discrimination makes it seem that all the women are white and all the men are African-American"; thus, they observe, "the experience of women of color. The dangers of "like race" analogies in disability studies are similar: if race and disability are conceived of as discrete categories to be compared, contrasted, or arranged in order of priority, it becomes impossible to think through complex intersections of racism and ableism in the lives of disabled people of color. These intersections must be understood in ways that are more than merely additive, as Angela P. According to an additive model of multiple oppressions, Harris argues, "black women will never be anything more than a crossroads between two kinds of domination, or at the bottom of a hierarchy of oppressions" (589). Many of these arguments have been developed primarily with physical disability in mind.
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It also improves the absorption of vitamin A if the dietary intake of vitamin A is low. Variations in the spatial orientation of the carbon atoms in this tail and in the composition of the tail itself are what result in forming the different tocopherol and tocotrienol compounds. Considering the importance of vitamin E to our health, you might think that you need to consume a huge amount daily. This is the amount determined to be sufficient to prevent erythrocyte hemolysis, or the rupturing (lysis) of red blood cells (erythrocytes). Much of the vitamin E that we consume comes from vegetable oils and the products made from them (Figure 10. Broccoli, frozen, chopped, cooked 1 cup Peanuts, dry roasted 1 oz 0 5 10 Alpha-tocopherol Vitamin E (mg) 15 Table 10. Although no single fruit or vegetable contains very high amounts of vitamin E, eating the recommended amounts of fruits and vegetables each day will help ensure adequate intake of this nutrient. Cereals are often fortified with vitamin E, and other grain products contribute modest amounts to our diet. Vitamin E is destroyed by exposure to oxygen, metals, ultraviolet light, and heat. Although raw (uncooked) vegetable oils contain vitamin E, heating these oils destroys vitamin E. At this time, it is unclear whether these adverse effects are an anomaly or if high supplemental doses of vitamin E may be harmful for certain individuals. Some individuals report side effects such as nausea, intestinal distress, and diarrhea with vitamin E supplementation. The most important of these are the anticoagulants, substances that stop blood from clotting excessively. In addition, new evidence suggests that in some people, long-term use of standard vitamin E supplements may cause hemorrhaging in the brain, leading to a type of stroke called hemorrhagic stroke. This is primarily because vitamin E is fat soluble, so we typically store adequate amounts in our fatty tissues even when our diets are low in this nutrient. However, it is common for people in the United States to consume suboptimal amounts of vitamin E. This rupturing of red blood cells leads to anemia, a condition in which the red blood cells cannot carry and transport enough oxygen to the tissues, leading to fatigue, weakness, and a diminished ability to perform physical and mental work. Premature babies can suffer from vitamin Edeficiency anemia; if born too early, the infant does not receive vitamin E from its mother, as the transfer of this vitamin from mother to baby occurs during the last few weeks of the pregnancy. Other symptoms of vitamin E deficiency include loss of muscle coordination and reflexes, leading to impairments in vision, speech, and movement. As you might expect, vitamin E deficiency can also impair immune function, especially if accompanied by low body stores of the mineral selenium. In adults, vitamin E deficiencies are usually caused by diseases, particularly diseases that cause malabsorption of fat, such as those that affect the small intestine, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas. As reviewed in Chapter 3, the liver makes bile, which is necessary for the absorption of fat. The gallbladder delivers the bile into our intestines, where it facilitates digestion of fat. Thus, when the liver, gallbladder, or pancreas are not functioning properly, fat and the fat-soluble vitamins, including vitamin E, cannot be absorbed, leading to their deficiency. RecaP Vitamin E protects cell membranes from oxidation, enhances immune function, and improves the absorption of vitamin A if dietary intake is low. A genuine deficiency is rare, but symptoms include anemia and impaired vision, speech, and movement. We must therefore consume it on a regular basis, as any excess is excreted (primarily in the urine) rather than stored. There are two active forms of vitamin C: ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbic acid (Figure 10. Humans and guinea pigs are two groups that cannot synthesize their own vitamin C and must consume it in the diet.
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We break down dietary Chapter 1 the Role of Nutrition in Our Health 13 Proteins · Support tissue growth, repair, and maintenance Composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen · Figure 1. Although proteins can provide energy, they are not usually a primary energy source. Proteins play a major role in building new cells and tissues, maintaining the structure and strength of bone, repairing damaged structures, and assisting in regulating metabolism and fluid balance. Contrary to popular belief, vitamins do not contain energy (or kilocalories); however, they do play an important role in the release and utilization of the energy found in carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins. They are also critical in building and maintaining healthy bone, blood, and muscle; supporting our immune system so we can fight illness and disease; and ensuring healthy vision. Because we need relatively small amounts of these nutrients to support normal health and body functions, the vitamins (in addition to minerals) are referred to as micronutrients. Some vitamins can be destroyed by heat, light, excessive cooking, exposure to air, and an alkaline (or basic) environment. Vitamins are classified according to their solubility in water as either fat-soluble or water-soluble vitamins (Table 1. This classification is based upon their solubility in water, which affects how vitamins are absorbed, transported, and stored in body tissues. Both fatsoluble and water-soluble vitamins are essential for our health and are found in a variety of foods. Fat-soluble vitamins are found in a variety of fat-containing foods, including dairy products. Some important dietary minerals include sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, and iron. Minerals differ from the macronutrients and vitamins in that they are not broken down during digestion or when the body uses them to promote normal function; and unlike certain vitamins, they are not destroyed by heat or light. Thus, all minerals maintain their structure no matter what environment they are in. This means that the calcium in our bones is the same as the calcium in the milk we drink, and the sodium in our cells is the same as the sodium in our table salt. They assist in fluid regulation and energy production, are essential to the health of our bones and blood, and help rid the body of harmful by-products of metabolism. Minerals are classified according to the amounts we need in our diet and according to how much of the mineral is found in the body. The two categories of minerals in our diets and bodies are the major minerals and the trace minerals (Table 1. Peanuts are a good source of magnesium and phosphorus, which play an important role in formation and maintenance of the skeleton. Water Supports All Body Functions Water is an inorganic nutrient that is vital for our survival. We consume water in its pure form, in juices, soups, and other liquids, and in solid foods such as fruits and vegetables. Adequate water intake ensures the proper balance of fluid both inside and outside of our cells and also assists in the regulation of nerve impulses and body temperature, muscle contractions, nutrient transport, and excretion of waste products. Because of the key role that water plays in our health, Chapter 9 focuses on water and its function in the body. RecaP minerals Inorganic substances that are not broken down during digestion and absorption and are not destroyed by heat or light. The six essential nutrient groups found in foods are carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, vitamins, minerals, and water. Carbohydrates are the primary energy source; lipids provide fat-soluble vitamins and essential fatty acids and act as energy-storage molecules; and proteins support tissue growth, repair, and maintenance. Vitamins are organic compounds that assist with regulating a multitude of body processes. Minerals are inorganic elements that have critical roles in virtually all aspects of human health and function.
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Dynamic scans elucidate the uptake and drainage of the radiopharmaceutical and allow the generation of time-activity curves by selection of regions of interest, while static scans image the functional renal tissue and provide useful morphologic information. An understanding of the principles of the test, its limitations and the sources of error is essential to the interpretation of the results and effective use of renal scintigraphy. This overview will not deal with radiopharmaceuticals or indications currently under investigation or used for clinical trials or research. Any and all of these guidelines are only advised where the needed technology and radiopharmaceuticals are available and licensed. This test has become one of most common procedures in daily renal nuclear medicine practice and is very useful in differentiation of obstructive or nonobstructive causes of a dilated renal pelvis (Taylor 2012). Renal cortical scintigraphy also is used to evaluate kidney scarring after pyelonephritis. In Europe, the certified nuclear medicine physicians who perform the study and sign the report are responsible for the procedure, complying with national laws and rules. The nuclear medicine physician should be aware of relevant urologic procedures and surgeries such as the site of the renal graft, the presence of a nephrostomy tube, ureteral stent or urinary diversion. The supervising/interpreting nuclear medicine physician should review all available clinical, laboratory, and radiological data prior to performing the study. Patient preparation and precautions Renal radionuclide scans generally require no specific preparation: patients can avoid fasting and should be in good state of hydration. Adverse reactions to renal radiopharmaceuticals are quite rare: no major reaction has ever been reported Radiopharmaceuticals 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 When performing dynamic renal studies, the radiopharmaceuticals can be divided into two categories: 1. The 131-I label, once used for probe renography, yields very low-quality images with a high radiation dose and is no longer used. They are mainly bound in the proximal tubule in the renal cortex for a prolonged time after injection and are suitable for static renal imaging to detect a renal mass or defects in the renal parenchyma. It is recommended also to obtain a later static image after standing upright and voiding. Patient preparation: good hydration before and after radiopharmaceutical administration is essential. Timing after injection and scan framing: a commonly used technique involves dynamic acquisition of 1-2 second images for 1-2 min. All of the functions actually occur concurrently but these are the times when one or the other dominates. A post-micturition post-erect image, for the same duration as the last frame of the renogram is frequently indicated clinically. In patients who cannot lie flat it is possible to perform the exam seated with the back on gamma-camera detector. Collimator: Low Energy High resolution or General purpose, according to availability i. Anterior views must be acquired in the presence of horseshoe or ectopic kidney or kidney transplant. Lateral views may be obtained at the end of the renography if renal depth measurements are needed. After Imaging: Patient should be advised to maintain hydration and frequent bladder emptying during the rest of the day. Static Renal Scan (Renal Cortical scintigraphy) 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 a. Patient preparation: good hydration before and after radiopharmaceutical administration. Radiopharmaceutical administration: intravenous injection carefully avoiding extravasation. Timing after injection: Image acquisition should start from 2 to 4 hours after radiopharmaceutical administration. Patient Positioning: supine position; be careful with patient comfort to reduce motion. Minimum Matrix: 128x128 or 256x256 pixel with magnification (zoom) set to yield a preferred pixel size of 2 4 mm. Total counts/ Time per view: At least 200000 total counts must be acquired or use fixed time of 5-10 minutes/ per view. If a pinhole collimator is being used, 100000 to 150000 total counts or 10 minutes should be acquired per view.