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The animals should be tested in their natural surroundings without stress, possibly a floor with different temperatures could be designed were a reflex reaction of the animal is avoided. The new cold intolerance definition should include the knowledge of the present literature and probably will be a subgroup of the neuropathic pain patient group. A suggestion could be: Pain initiated or caused by a primary lesion, dysfunction or transitory perturbation in the peripheral or central nervous system. Vanhoutte, the effect of profound cooling on adrenergic neurotransmission in canine cutaneous veins. Chapter 10 Summary 140 Chapter 10 Summary the aim of this thesis was to further understand the pathophysiology of cold intolerance. From our own clinical experience and from literature we know that cold intolerance is commonly seen in patients after a trauma to the hand, for instance a nerve injury, an amputation, or the hand and arm vibration syndrome. The prevalence of cold intolerance in patients with a hand fracture, however, was unknown. In order to become fully informed of the severity of the clinical problem we investigated a patient population of hand trauma patients. In Chapter 2, we performed a retrospective study to determine the prevalence and severity of cold intolerance in patients who sustained a fracture to the hand. This patient group was of interest to us because no major nerves or blood vessels were damaged. With a response rate of 59%, we found that 38% of the patients with a hand fracture had cold intolerance. Part I was designed to investigate if a vascular damage is the origin of cold intolerance. In Chapter 3, we investigate the rewarming patterns in patients with cold intolerance. With an average of 30 months after patients recovered from a hand fracture, we performed a cold stress test. Temperature during the rewarming phase was measured using infrared videothermography. We found no significant differences in the rewarming patterns comparing the affected and nonaffected hand of the patient. Analyzing the data and comparing the rewarming pattern of the dominant and non-dominant hand of the control subjects, no significant differences were found. The results of Chapter 3 revealed no relation between the severity of cold intolerance and rewarming patterns after cold stress testing. This suggests that the thermoregulation of the hands in cold intolerant patients may not be responsible for the complaints, at least not after a cold stress test. Suggesting therefore that disrupted thermoregulation may not directly cause cold intolerance. The complexity of upper extremity trauma during a hand fracture with accompanying tissue damage makes it is impossible to solely reject the understanding that a vascular origin is the cause of cold intolerance. Therefore, we selected an animal model to further explore the relation between a vascular or thermoregulatory dysfunction and the origin of cold intolerance. The animal study in Chapter 4 was designed to further investigate the relation between disordered thermoregulation and cold intolerance. The rats underwent different types of peripheral nerve injury: the Summary 141 first group was operated on the left hind limb using the spared nerve injury model, and the second group received a sham operation, while the third group had the complete sciatic lesion operation. A cold stress test was performed to test the presence of cold intolerance, and a Von Frey test was performed to test mechanical allodynia. Rewarming patterns were measured via thermocouples that were attached on the dorsal side of the hind paw. All measurements were performed preoperatively at 3, 6 and 9 weeks postoperatively. Despite the fact that after peripheral nerve injury these rats developed cold intolerance, the results of this study showed that the rewarming was not altered. This chapter demonstrates that peripheral thermoregulation can still be intact after a peripheral nerve injury in a rat model. Local receptors that innervate thermoregulation via vasoconstriction and dilatation in a cold intolerant paw/hand should be investigated. It is generally considered to be a protective mechanism against local cold injuries after peripheral nerve injury.

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As Pereira points out, "the social economy has gained great recognition within the global economy, with the social investment market creating innovative dynamics" (Pereira, 2016). Social sector organizations have the ability to impact nations economically, environmentally and socially, solving the most sensitive problems through the supply of their innovative services and products. However, in order to present effective, efficient, innovative and quality services in response to their objectives, they need to have sufficient and sustainable funding (Sauti, 2019). Figure 1 represents the overview of the financing of social sector organizations: Figure 1: Overview of the financing of social sector organizations Source: the Future of Funding for Social Enterprises. At the same time, the sector also presents great opportunities for future development. According to the Monitor Institute 2009 report, despite the numerous challenges faced by the sector, there are a number of opportunities that allow for an optimistic perspective, namely (Monitor, 2009): a) Increased interest on the part of capital providers; b) Greater recognition of the need for effective solutions to social and environmental challenges; c) the constant record of successes obtained with new instruments so far; d) A set of new talents interested in the sector; e) Creation of new sources of financing for social businesses. These five opportunities represent, according to Chong and Kleeman (2001) good reasons to be optimistic about the future financing of social organizations (Chong & Kleemann, 2011, p. At the same time that profit oriented investments aimed at generating social and environmental good are being transferred from activist investors to the core of the main financial institutions (Monitor, 2009). In short, it is important to highlight, on the one hand, the inclusive view of the social economy and, on the other hand, the real need for the social economy to find new forms of financing. In order to better understand the context in which the impact economy emerges, it is important to go back a little in time and review some historical landmarks, understand the main characteristics as well as the perspectives of several specialists. The Industrial Revolution is considered one of the most important developments in human history; the transition from an agricultural economy to an industrial economy radically changed the way people lived and worked, created new markets, created organic demand and provided exponential growth. That is why industrialization is considered to have triggered the first consistent and sustained increase in the average standard of living. However, this development was not uniform and had also many negative consequences. In recent decades, technological advances, particularly in technology and information technology, have created a knowledge economy that capitalizes on the intellectual production of the employees. Since the beginning of this millennium, globalization has taken on unprecedented significance, increasing the interdependence of global economies. Multinational companies exist in greater quantity than at any other time in history. International cooperation facilitates the increase in the movement of people, goods and services across borders, according to information collected on the websites 629 52nd International Scientific Conference on Economic and Social Development ­ Porto, 16-17 April 2020 of various United Nations departments, on globalization, cooperation and migration. Alongside cooperation, international communication, thanks to the growing access to the internet, has never been easier or cheaper, which is one of the reasons why it can be said that the current era is also an era of increasing "media visibility" (Ratton Ferreira, 2006, p. The evolutionary vision presented is important because it allows us to understand the environment that gave rise to the impact economy. It should also be noted that, like "institutional development", as defended by Chang, there is no formula that countries can "import and apply directly to promote their economic development, however, in the impact economy, despite its complexity, its guidelines, respective application and measurement tools are well defined" (Chang, 2007, p. The impact economy is, therefore, a highly integrated ecosystem of important actors focused on radically and fundamentally redefining sustainable value in various interest groups. An impact economy is, "a very different type of system than a traditional capitalist economy that prioritizes only financial returns. In impact economy, consumers and shareholders challenge entrepreneurs and executives to show that they generate their profits in a way that contributes to the public good" (Martin, 2013, pp. According to Fine, Pandit, Hickson, & Tuinenburg, "this approach to doing business is already being implemented by some organizations at various levels - in the strategic choice, in the management of their supply chains, in the allocation of funds for investments (. But, we have yet to see it embraced comprehensively by entire industries or national economies. Thus, we determine the main dimensions of a complete impact economy, the implementation of investment, the management of assets, the delivery of solutions, measurement and reporting" (Fine, Pandit, Hickson, & Tuinenburg, 2018, p. In the impact economy, organizations fully leverage partnerships between the public and private sectors and civil society in a total market approach aimed at optimizing results (Martin, 2013). Where this value creation intersects - which happens, frequently and significantly - all parties can bring their resources and capabilities to support the creation of that value (Martin, 2013). Creating shared value focuses on identifying and expanding the connections between social and economic progress. The concept is based on the premise that both economic and social progress must be addressed using principles of value.

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Ideally, the patient should be weighed regularly, including a baseline measurement before starting treatment. Dietician should advise on a low-carbohydrate diet (watch sodium in lithium preparations). It has been suggested that depot haloperidol may cause less increase in weight than other depot antipsychotic drugs. It has also been suggested that trifluoperazine and haloperidol are superior in this regard than are chlorpromazine, thiothixene or thioridazine. Avoid anorectic drugs if possible (may exacerbate psychosis and cause valvular heart disease). H2-blocking agents have been suggested for weight gain with olanzapine, as has amantadine. Uncommonly, patients on lofepramine have become icteric during the first two months of treatment, and this disappears if the drug is stopped. Clomipramine, a powerful cause of impotence, is useful in phobic and obsessional states3571; high doses may activate withdrawn schizophrenics. According to Buckley and McManus (1998) amoxapine had the highest fatal toxicity index3575 of all antidepressants! Also described are social withdrawal, hyperactivity 3578, depression, agitation, and insomnia. Notes on the management of enuresis: this problem is more often one for paediatricians and child mental health care workers than for general adult psychiatrists. Behavioural methods of treatment include restricting fluids before bedtime, scheduled nocturnal waking to pass urine, and awards (praise, stars, etc) for dry nights. The bed and pad method (wetting sets off an alarm) is very effective (in children it is important that parents arise as well). Its main metabolite, 8-hydroxy-amoxapine, which has antipsychotic properties, has a 30-hour elimination half-life (8 hours for amoxapine). However, this explanation has been challenged and serotonergic mechanisms may be involved. Oxybutynin (Cystrin, Ditropan, Renamel), an anticholinergic-antispasmodic, may improve daytime enuresis by relaxing the detrusor muscle. This process starts in the gut wall, continues in the liver, and ends in the brain. A cyclopropylamine formed by substitution of isopropyl side chain of amphetamine with a cyclopropyl one. Marangell ea(2003) suggest a two-week interval between stopping phenelzine and starting tranylcypromine because of the amphetamine-like nature of the latter drug. Notes: Constipation should be treated with a bulk laxative, such as methylcellulose (Celevac) or bran. Some workers believe that the risks associated with nifedipine are irrelevant compared with a hypertensive crisis. Others point out that nifedipine use in such circumstances may cause myocardial infarction and would strongly suggest that it not be used. Marangell ea(2003) suggest that due to risks of cardiac arrhythmias or severe hypotension phentolamine should be given in a place where such adverse outcomes can be managed. Pethidine3594 should always be avoided because of the risk of a fatal excitatory reaction, but morphine is safe to use. The only analgesics to have elicited the excitatory response are pethidine (meperidine/Demerol) and, possibly, dextromethorphan3597. Peden (2000) saw little evidence for stopping psychotropic drugs before anaesthesia, but advises forewarning the anaesthetist. Small quantities of some wines, non-tap beers (bottled and canned) and sherries may be taken in safety. Tyramine can be present in processed drinks involving yeast, even if alcohol is absent. The list of restricted foods is potentially very long (banana skins, caviar, etc) and an up-to-date warning card must be obtained from the dispensing pharmacist. The opposite switch demands an interval of at least seven days3599 (5-6 weeks when stopping tranylcypromine).

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If teachers approach new technologies as a neutral tool that can be used for many different things, the transition to seamless knowledge sharing will be much easier. We think that throughout the PhD education, teachers of the future teachers will be able to learn how to develop new content for smart education. Choosing and Using Digital Games in the Classroom: A Practical Guide, Advances in Game-Based Learning. Hungarian validation of the rational-experiential invetory and its relationship with ego-resiliency. Individual differences in intuitive­ experiential and analytical­rational thinking styles. Smart Universities: Concepts, Systems, and Technologies, Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies. They use market-driven strategies to tackle critical social issues in brand new ways. Through non-profit, for-profit and hybrid enterprises, social entrepreneurs have promoted a broad range of solutions focused on sustainable development, decades before they were called Sustainable Development Goals. In this paper we perform a reflexion on social entrepreneurship focused on the definition of the concept and some of the challenges of the sector. We also present an exploratory study of digital blockchain technology and the role it can play in the implementation and success of social entrepreneurship projects, namely within the framework of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. Also presented is the case study of the Blockchain for Zero Hunger Initiative under way in a refugee camp in Jordan. In turn, the social sector has the exceptional ability to be a powerful means of leading social impact. This aspect is particularly relevant in the context of sustainable development and above all in the enormous potential to contribute for the implementation and success of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. Social entrepreneurs around the world have been unparalleled catalysts for social change. For Zimmer and Pearson, the real power of social entrepreneurs is their talent for identifying market failures that are holding humanity back, and their skill in tailoring and implementing solutions. These include providing clean water, access to renewable energy, financial inclusion, high-quality educational resources and critical information that allows life-giving agriculture to flourish. As the field has matured, so too has the complexity and depth of the social issues at stake (Zimmer & Pearson, 2018). While universities, think tanks and other groups study and support social enterprise, the missing link has been candid and authentic engagement from those of us in the field. It is one thing to study social entrepreneurs; it is quite another to worry about meeting payroll, ensure your organization is continuously innovating its models and aligning staff expertise to increase impact, while often putting your health, family, relationships and even lives on the line in your quest to deliver systemic change (Zimmer & Pearson, 2018). From the point of view of opportunities, technology, namely digital technology and network communication, presents itself as an immensely fertile field for the creation of innovative projects. At the same time, the need to provide urgent answers to dramatic problems that still plague humanity (despite experiencing a unique period in history in terms of development and prosperity) such as hunger, war or dictatorships, as well as finding solutions to combat current problems such as those arising from climate change or migration, or to implement projects aimed at recovering and protecting the planet, constitute opportunities to create innovative projects based on the technologies of the fourth industrial revolution (I4. The work is structured as follows: in the next chapter, the second, the theoretical framework of social entrepreneurship is focused on the difficulty of defining the concept and its main characteristics. In the third chapter, the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals are briefly presented, since, from our point of view, it is mainly within the scope of this program that many of the innovation opportunities for social entrepreneurship currently reside. The fourth chapter is dedicated to a brief definition and presentation of blockchain technology; this is the anchor concept of the case study described in chapter five. In terms of methodology, the exploratory study was chosen, a category of observational research, considered useful in real cyber systems (related to techno-social behaviors) (Edgar & Manz, 2017). In addition, a case study is used as a way of illustrating the correlation between the various topics covered where the methodology used both to answer research questions and to better understand a system for which there is no pre-conceived hypothesis or conceptual behavior (Edgar & Manz, 2017). According to Baxter & Jack the qualitative case study is a research method that facilitates the exploration of a complex phenomenon in its own context using a variety of data sources. This ensures that the subject is not explored through a personal view but through a variety of lenses that allow observing various facets of the phenomenon to be revealed or understood (Baxter & Jack, 2008).

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Grazing animals select the more palatable species and, at high stocking rates, this can lead to changes in the composition of the vegetation (Todd & Hoffman, 1999), favouring less palatable species ("increasers") (Abule et al. Composition changes often include a shift from perennial to annual grass species (Kelly & Walker, 1976; Milchunas & Lauenroth, 1993; Parsons et al. In South Africa, about 161 invasive rangeland plant species are recorded, which impact about 10 million hectares or 8% of the country (Richardson & van Wilgen, 2004). However, at national and local levels the impacts of rangeland degradation on livestock carrying capacity is welldocumented. In Brazil, 70­80% of total deforestation is estimated to have resulted from the development of extensive livestock systems (Tourrand et al. While crop intensification dramatically increased crops yield during the past decades, it also accelerated pollution of soil and water (Gisladottir & Stocking, 2005). Irrigation by water extraction from aquifers can exceed recharge rates (known as over-drafts) in many regions worldwide (Siebert et al. Tillage creates bare soil that is susceptible to erosion ­ before planting, between plants and between seasons. Soil can be compacted by tractors and other equipment which also leads to erosion (see Section 4. It also increases decomposition rates, which can increase the release of mineral nutrients at times when there may not be a crop present to utilize them and promotes carbon dioxide release from soil organic matter oxidation. As populations grow, fallow periods usually shorten or can cease, increasing periods of bare soil, which leaves soils vulnerable to all the consequences of bare soil. In developed countries, fields and even large regions are often planted with the same crop (monoculture), which can increase pest and disease pressure through loss of natural control processes, especially in fruit and vegetable crops. Fertilizers and manures improve yields; however, high rates of applications can lead to a host of environmental consequences including pollution of ground and surface water (Carpenter et al. Furthermore, synthetic fertilizers contain no organic component, which leaves soils vulnerable to erosion and reduces water- and nutrient-holding capacity. Chemical pest and weed control has been linked to, for example, water pollution, declines in bird and bee populations and other negative effects on ecosystem services, including human health (Hernandez et al. Another method that did not exclude forest borders ­ and therefore may have counted other cover types ­ reported 18% of the global hinterland forests disappeared between 2007 and 2013 (Tyukavina et al. Intensive forestry in subtropical forests has resulted in the highest rates of forest change globally (Malhi et al. For example, in Fennoscandia, more than 90% of the productive forests are under intensive forest management, often at the expense of other ecosystem services (Bouget et al. There is an important distinction between the terms "deforestation" and "forest degradation" used here and elsewhere. There is no deforestation if clear felling is on an area that, in time, will regenerate to forest. In the Democratic Republic of Congo studies have shown that, while core forest diminished between 3. A remotely-sensed index of forest canopy damage caused by selective logging and associated forest fires has been developed to measure forest degradation (the Normalized Difference Fraction Index) (Souza et al. There are many types of deforestation and forest degradation that must be distinguished in order to understand their causes and effects (Chakravarty et al. In addition to these, there are many anthropogenic activities that lead to inadvertent forest loss, such as pollution of air (see Section 4. Clearly, reduced net primary production results in loss of carbon sequestered in biomass and an increase in greenhouse gases (see Section 4. Removal of large, old trees and woody debris during clear-cutting leads to declines of many species (Oldйn et al. Reduced evapotranspiration, infiltration rates and water-holding capacities can cause increased runoff and a decrease in watershed protection, leading to an increase in flooding, erosion (Bruijnzeel, 2004b) and reduced water supply for human use (see Section 4. Furthermore, beyond the forested region itself, deforestation and forest degradation can disrupt normal weather patterns, creating hotter and drier weather thus increasing drought, crop failures, and displacement of major ecosystems, modifications of wind, water vapour content and mixing of the lower atmosphere. Trees can also capture nutrients that might otherwise be lost to leaching (by 20-40%) (Babbar & Zak, 1995; Mekonnen et al. Nitrogen-fixing leguminous trees, such as Erythrina poeppigiana, can be used to provide organic material with a high nitrogen content (Harmand et al. Logging often leads to degradation caused by heavy vehicles, construction of access road, and burning forest residue.

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Psychoanalysts interpret the psychoses as the loss of firm ego boundaries with intrusion of repressed noxious material into consciousness. The pure organic psychiatrist might view psychological/ behavioural problems as manifestations of brain dysfunction, however subtle the latter may be. It could be argued that at least some psychiatric problems are simply a way of communicating distress 583, avoiding painful stresses, or evading 580 581 In practice, patients often have symptoms of more than one disorder or fulfil criteria for multiple disorders. Unlike Freud, he asserted that mental processes are limited to conscious awareness. There are serious shortcomings attached to diagnosing depression by employing severity criteria and a cross-sectional examination. Major depression is a loosely defined category that trumps adjustment disorder and dysthymia. Jacob (2009) pleads for an emphasis on context (stress, coping, and support), a return to older categories (melancholia, dysthymia, and adjustment disorder), and avoidance of medicalisation of distress. We do not know many of the answers to such questions and it is likely that all the various theories are true to some extent in some people some of the time. What brings a person to a psychiatrist or other mental health professional is rarely simple. The terms endogenous and exogenous were introduced into medicine by the neurologist Mobius in 1893. Their usefulness, like so many other terms, has not been straightforward, and modern practice assumes contributions from biological, psychological and environmental sources. Aetiology is rarely known in psychiatry, except for problems like grief or diseases like syphilis. There is no other practical alternative at present, unless we are to become enslaved by theory. No matter what the diagnosis or however chronic the illness, we must not regard patients as objects. The former model sees people as animals subject to various diseases that present in certain ways. This approach attempts to apply scientific objectivity to the understanding of a dysfunctional nervous system. The latter model grants preeminence to empathising with the mental/psychological activity of independent human agents. Some disorders lend themselves to one approach more than another when different questions are being asked. However, life is not simple and there are many perspectives that allow us to conceptualise suffering or dysfunction. The idea that medical diagnoses are less value-laden than psychiatric ones is untrue. Human beings live for longer than lower animals and their brains are not as readily accessible as other species. Certain theories about human development, such as that of John Bowlby587, drew on earlier animal work. This model also shows immune and endocrine abnormalities similar to those reported in human depressives. Bowlby described 3 main attachment patterns: secure (confident explorers), anxious-resistant (afraid of separation and is clingy and unwilling to explore), and anxious-avoidant (lacks confidence that care will be given ­ extreme cases are found in badly run institutions). Overexpression of D2 striatal receptors in transgenic mice may mimic some of the cognitive problems found in schizophrenia. If reelin is absent (Reeler mouse or Kawasaki rat) the cortex forms in the wrong order, i. Homozygogosity for the mutated reelin gene causes lissencephaly in humans: a 4-layered cortex with pyramidal cells occupying the incorrect layer. Because such catalepsy is considered to be due to involvement of the basal ganglia (blockade of dopamine receptors) it is often employed as a model for druginduced Parkinsonism.


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Enterprises are judged by how they handle expectations and how they respond to difficulties (Stefancova et al. In most cases, enterprises are not ready to deal with similar crises because they do not have the specific methods and tools and skills (Luskova, Buganova, 2011). One of the tools that helps prevent crises and contributes to greater enterprise resilience, is the application of risk management (Figure 1) (Business Continuity Institute, 2020). There are a number of definitions of the resilience of an enterprise, which differ only from the nature examined. The definition of resistance according to National Academies (2020) is the ability of the enterprise (system) to maintain or regain a dynamically stable state that allows it to continue to operate after an accident and / or the presence of constant stress. Author Whitehorn (2020) defines resistance as - the ability of an enterprise to plan and adapt to change or failure through anticipation, protection, response capacity and recovery capability. According to Business Continuity Institute (Business Continuity Institute, 2020) a resilient undertaking is such a: capable of achieving enterprises aims and realizing 248 52nd International Scientific Conference on Economic and Social Development ­ Porto, 16-17 April 2020 opportunities, even in adverse circumstances. The basic idea of resistance is derived from Darwin, who states - it is not the strongest species that survive, nor the most intelligent that survive, it is the one that is most adaptable to change (Klucka 2015). These definitions imply that a resilient enterprise should cope with adverse circumstances such as: failure, accident, generally called incident. Figure 1: Top five organizational functions important to the foundation of a resilient organization Source: Business Continuity Institute 2020 An incident can be defined by a sequence of activities aimed at increasing preparedness, increasing the efficiency and effectiveness of the response, and reducing the consequences. According to Szabados (2008) the incident is a situation that may cause disruption, loss or crisis. What is essential is the systemic approach to security expressed in terms of resilience. From a time point of view, we can allocate phases to the incident as follows: before the incident - prevention, during the incident - response, after the incident - recovery. Action in the prevention phase is aimed at implementing measures that increase preparedness for the possible occurrence of an incident and reduce the consequences in the event of an incident (Klucka, 2015). If the enterprise wants to prevent crises, it has to assess and manage the risks that are the potential crisis source comprehensively (Nedeliakovб et al. The risk management process is the systematic application of the management of policies, procedures, and practices in the framework of communication, consultation, the establishment of context, identification, analysis, evaluation, processing, monitoring and review of risk (Brachert et al. According to Hopkin (2013) risk management means a holistic, integrated, forward-looking and process-oriented approach, managing all key risks and opportunities, not just financial ones, to maximize value for business shareholders as a whole. Risk management is a tool that helps businesses to ensure prosperous management without shocks and crises. It requires the adoption of risk identification, risk prevention, and risk management measures to cause as little loss and damage as possible (Buganovб, Luskovб, 2015). The main objective of the research was to identify the key business risks of enterprises in Slovakia, the current state of application of the risk management process in enterprises, assess the sources of identified risks and assess the level of ability and skills of managers to apply enterprise risk 249 52nd International Scientific Conference on Economic and Social Development ­ Porto, 16-17 April 2020 management. Various scientific methods such as baseline analysis, querying, and statistical methods for data evaluation were applied to meet the stated objective of the paper. The baseline analysis was used in the process of identifying and solving the researched issue. The basic methodological starting point is the assumption that the permanent and turbulent changes in the broader entrepreneurial environment can be a source of risks and crises for the enterprise that are not prepared for them. The comparison of the current knowledge and approaches to enterprise risk management confirms the high necessity of solving this area. The online questionnaire allowed more efficient collection, sorting and evaluation of data. The advantage of the online questionnaire is the more efficient collection in terms of time, location and response speed. Google Form provides a convenient environment for questionnaire creation, data collection, presentation of results, and easy evaluation (Calonge-Pascual, 2019). The individual questionnaire questions correspond to the main objective of the paper. They identified problems, lack of knowledge and skills, as well as the need and benefit of the enterprise risk management application in terms of ability and skills of managers to apply the enterprise risk management process. Basic statistical methods (percentage of data, graphical representation of results, etc. Evaluate the level of risk management application in the enterprises and assess its impact on strengthening the enterprises resilience. To assess the level of required knowledge and skills of managers needed for effective application of risk management.


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Moments when the students received guidance Professional guidance at the University has a continuous character, which is identified with the three moments of the university course: in the first year, during studies and in the last year. Table 4: Moments when the students received guidance Moments In the first year of the course Through all the years of the course In the last year of the course n 199 200 198 Average 2,62 2,93 3,20 Median 3,00 3,00 3,00 Standard deviation 1,156 1,101 1,107 Source: Own elaboration 469 52nd International Scientific Conference on Economic and Social Development ­ Porto, 16-17 April 2020 Table 4 shows that the guidance had a distinct presence in the course of university studies. The presence of areas the guidance received, concerning the areas or contents, displays an essentially informative profile with focus on academic and professional themes. Academic information about the characteristics of the course (duration, study plan, curricular units, optional and / or specialties), information about the professional skills specific to the course that are searched for in the job market, along with professional self-knowledge, are the three thematic wich more orientation is given on by the institution. The professional guidance thematic on wich less orientation is given, are related to a more systematic orientation. Due to the fact that they are less attended to, the informal nature of the practice of guidance and its link with the guiding role of teachers and the curriculum itself, is verified. The orientation for the elaboration of the professional project and the individualized support/advisory for decision-making on training and employment are the thematic that students have received less guidance on. The thematic most linked to insertion in the work market, such as job search techniques and strategies, job search on the Internet, labor law and entrepreneurship are also among those with less presence. Despite the importance, and the legal prescriptions that recognize it, guidance for moving into the job market is scarce. Knowledge of the situation of discrimination towards women in the labor market, its causes and the measures taken to reduce or eliminate this problem, was also among the ones that got the least attention. Agents and services that provide professional guidance Vocational guidance is carried out mainly by teachers. Teachers informally perform an important guiding function that is recognized by students. This role would be related, mainly, to the guiding role of internships and to the transmission of knowledge of the professional market that has a part of the teachers who accumulate the function of teaching and employment. The scarce guiding role of the university services can be related to the reduced use of this services by the students. These results were collected by Pereira (2017) in another conducted research, in which students know the services, but do not use them in equal proportion. The majority of services more related to vocational guidance have low levels of knowledge and use. Therefore, it can be concluded that students do not take advantage of existing services at the University. Another conclusion of the same study highlights that the services and the guiding figures are presented in a fragmented way at the scopes and function levels, which are fundamentally informative. It is necessary to unify services and figures in charge of the guiding task, through its integration in a guidance plan at university level. Presence of professional guidance in the university journey Professional guidance was present throughout the university course, from the beginning to the end of the studies. The last year of the course is where the orientation has greater presence, although it does not completely meet the needs of students. This presence can be explained by the guiding role of the internships that take place in the last year and, therefore, explains its greater appreciation in the last moment of the course by the students, because they provide more 470 52nd International Scientific Conference on Economic and Social Development ­ Porto, 16-17 April 2020 information and bring them closer to the reality of the work market. This contrast leads us to consider that the informative actions are ineffective, however there are activities in which students participate in the first year, but it can be interpreted that they must be improved. Thus, it is necessary to rethink the activities developed in the first year (modalities, duration and fostering more student involvement), in order to make them more efficient and effective. The lower presence of guidance for job insertion contrasts with the importance that some variables have in the global appreciation of the guidance received. Thus, the following appear highlighted: the social skills for professional life (interpersonal skills and communication, team work, etc. La orientaciуn vocacional y el mercado del trabajo: їorientar para transformar o para domesticar? A prбtica da orientaзгo profissional na universidade: um estudo numa universidade portuguesa.

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It states as well that research on the culture of universities and other institutional areas that support stereotypes could be gone into in greater depth. The report from France calls for the development of strong empirical 72 Meta-analysis of gender and science research Topic report "Stereotypes and Identity" research, particularly on the social construction of science. The German report notes the lack of a critical review of the data gathered and of the methodologies. The report from the Netherlands points to questions of why the structural and cultural barriers that female academics come up against in academic selection and evaluation are there to begin with-who benefits from them and who maintains them? Further questions concerning when and how stereotypical images may actually affect appointment decisions have not yet been addressed. Furthermore, the studies have mainly been carried out in experimental settings and do not deal with daily situations. Danmarks Evalueringsinstitut (2005) Kшn, karakterer og karriere: Drenges og pigers prжstationer i uddannelse, Danmarks Evalueringsinstitut. Geschlectsunterschiede in computerspezifischen Attributionen", Psychologie in Erziehung und Unterricht, V. Evidence from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988", Industrial and Labor Relations Review, V. Eurydice (2010) Gender Differences in Educational Outcomes: Study on the Measures Taken and the Current Situation in Europe. Mujeres profesionales en las ciencias de la materia, LґOrйal for Women in Science-LґOrйal Espaсa, Madrid. Project on the Status and Education of Women, Association of American Colleges, Washington D. Why high school students do not like math and science", Learning and Instruction, V. Institute of Medicine (2001) Exploring the biological contributions to human health: Does sex matter? A literature review of the changing gender composition, structures and occupational cultures in medicine", Medicine Education, Jan, V. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: the Sciences & Engineering; 62 (1-B), 601. Single sex settings and the development of a pedagogy for girls and a pedagogy for boys in Danish schools", Gender and Education, V. V (1998) "Trends in gender differences in academic achievement from 1960 to 1994: an analysis of differences in mean, variance and extreme scores", Sex Roles: A Journal of Research V. Commissioned by the National Women in Engineering Committee Engineers Australia, February. Educational 88 Meta-analysis of gender and science research Topic report "Stereotypes and Identity" Leadership, April, 22-26. Results of European project WomEng", European Journal of Engineering Education, V. Report for the 89 Meta-analysis of gender and science research Topic report "Stereotypes and Identity" Kaiser Family Foundation and Children Now. Sex similarities and differences and the impact of 91 Meta-analysis of gender and science research Topic report "Stereotypes and Identity" society on gender. The following chapter Digitisation, Records Management and Digital Preservation starts with a proposal of the blockchain-based solution for long-term preservation of the validity of digital signatures and proceeds to focus on the preservation of spatial information, digital archival information system, and digital records in the context of e-services in Sweden. Personal Digital Information Management is the chapter with only one paper on the creation of contemporary personal archives which clearly shows the novelty of the topic. Firstly it focuses on the epistemological value of contemporary encyclopaedic projects, encyclopaedic knowledge as a semantic resource, Slovak e-Belinea project, online encyclopaedias for children and young adults, and the development of thematic portal Znameniti. The chapter Governmental and Business Sector Informatics concentrates on the internet security threats and cyber-attacks to critical infrastructure. The chapter Community Informatics and Servicelearning presents the project developed during the Europe engage project student tour and investigates the influence of ad blockers on the online advertising industry. We also hope the research presented here will help you expend your own research, motivate you to cooperate and internationalise your activities, formulate new projects, and achieve high quality results. Kuldar Aas Digital Archives of the National Archives of Estonia Nooruse 3, Tartu, Estonia kuldar.

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When analysing threats, defining scenarios and defining a security system for soft targets, considering the following ways of potential attacks is needed: · cold weapon attack (knife). This database is a comprehensive overview of the terrorist attacks committed between 1970 and 2019. Moreover, it is an open-source database including information on terrorist attacks around the world. For each incident, there is information available on the date and location of the events, weapons used and nature of the target, the number of casualties, and, when identifiable, the group or individuals responsible. They are characterized by security relevant characteristics that differ them from other targets but also among themselves. Typical ways to commit terrorist attacks have been identified and therefore it is possible to define the most of the relevant measures in advance. This makes it possible to target the protective and defensive elements more precisely, to formulate the principles of security and to recommend specific measures. Establishment of an appropriate measure To set up a functional soft target security system, it is needed to (Leitner, 2020): 1. Clarify protected interest At this stage, it is necessary to define what we value, what we do not want to lose, what could possibly damage us. Primarily it is about the health and life of people (violent attacks), property, information, social values, and also. Define possible sources of danger (threat) to protected interest It is necessary to identify specific groups or categories of persons with potential motivation to attack. This is used to analyse previous similar attacks and to consider potential sources of threat. It is always necessary to take into account the specifics of a particular object / action and usually specific threats. Specify threatening ways of attack the basis of a high-quality soft-target security system is to define as precisely as possible the sources of threat. The security system must be the result of a thorough analysis of interests and potential threats. It is characterized by a systematic analysis of the threats to a specific target and then by setting up appropriate measures. Analyse specified threats by threat and risk analysis methods and identify priority threats. The threat rate overview is often expressed by a matrix which makes it possible to allocate resources to address priority threats more efficiently. Prioritization of threats makes it possible to determine their importance and to determine for which of them the resources will be allocated. Design and application of security measures Based on prioritization of threats and determination of appropriate measures, measures to increase the resilience of the object are applied. There are, for example, installed technical elements, elaborated specific security plans, determining not only preventive measures and routine procedures but also reaction if the crisis situation has not been prevented and its consequences have to be minimized. Incident timing With all the planned incidents, it is necessary to work in three phases of time (Kalvach, 2017). What can be done before the occurrence of the incident so that the likelihood of its occurrence and the extent of the consequences are reduced or the incident has diverged from the target. What can be done to mitigate the impact when the incident has already taken place. Before the incident: Prevention - deterrence · Preventive measures - reduce the likelihood of an attack, increase the speed and intensity of the response, and limit the extent of the consequences and reduce them more quickly. During the incident: Detection - immediate reaction · Immediate detection of unwanted activity or disturbance of protected zones - preferably before the attack itself. After the incident: Mitigation and adaptation · Follow-up to the prepared coordination plan for management and its defined priorities for each phase after the incident. It is a methodological tool that verifies the effectiveness of security measures and reducing the level of threat the impact of which we want to reduce. The nature of the method: to list of possible incidents (which were rated relevant to the object and we want to minimize them), we will assign measures to deter, early detect, and respond as well as reducing impacts after an incident. The final form of the security system needs to be re-verified to determine whether it can reduce the threat rate before, during and after an incident. An immediate reaction that would stop an attacker (physical defence) is mostly only in the power of professional teams who are able tactically and technically eliminate the attackers while working with other people around.


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