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What the evidence shows is that people adapted to a wide array of environments that were far removed from Africa. From the Modern Homo sapiens 457 Levant to Sri Lanka, Siberia, and China, humans with modern anatomy used caves that preserved signs of their presence. Faunal and floral remains found in these shelters speak to the flexibility of the human omnivorous diet as local wildlife and foliage became nourishment. Decorative items, often found as burial goods in planned graves, show a flourishing cultural life. Eventually, modern humans at the southeastern fringe of the geographical range of the species found their way southeast until some became the first humans in Australia. Crossing to Australia Expansion of the first modern human Asians, still following the coast, eventually entered an area called Sunda by researchers before continuing on to modern Australia. Sunda was a landmass made up of the modern-day Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Java, and Borneo. Lowered sea levels connected these places with land bridges, making them easier to traverse. Proceeding past Sunda meant navigating Wallacea, the archipelago that includes the Indonesian islands east of Borneo. The name refers to naturalist Sir Alfred Russel Wallace, who noted that organisms from this region differed from those to the west. Prehistorically, there were many megafauna, large animals that migrating humans would have used for food and materials such as hides and bones. Further southeast was another prehistoric landmass called Sahul, which included New Guinea and Australia as one contiguous continent. This land had never seen hominins or any other primates before modern Homo sapiens arrived. Sites along this path offer clues about how our species handled these changes to the local environment to live successfully as foragers. While no fossil humans have been found at the Madjedbebe rock shelter in the North Territory of Australia, more than 10,000 artifacts found there show both behavioral modernity and variability (Clarkson et al. They include a diverse array of stone tools and different shades of ochre for rock art, including mica-based reflective pigment (similar to glitter). The ochre were shaped into what the researchers called "crayons" to be held and used to mark other things. One notable find in this category is the partial upper jaw of a thylacine, or Tasmanian wolf, which was colored red. These impressive artifacts date as far back as 56,000 years ago, providing the date for the earliest-known presence of humans in Australia. The lake, now dry, was one of a series located along the southern coast of Australia in New South Wales, far from where the first people entered from the north (Barbetti and Allen 1972; Bowler et al. Two individuals dating to around 40,000 years ago show signs of artistic and symbolic behavior, including intentional burial. Kow Swamp, also in southern Australia, contained human crania that looked distinctly different from the ones at Lake Mungo (Durband 2014; Thorne and Macumber 1972). The Kow Swamp crania had extremely robust brow ridges and thick bone walls, but these were paired with globular features on the braincase (Figure 12. The frontal bones had extremely linear slopes from the brow to the top of the cranium, resembling intentional cranial modification seen in other parts of the world. If the crania were shaped on purpose, they are another sign of symbolic behavior, as the practice has linked to ideas of group cultural identity. By the time of the Kow Swamp people, between 9,000 and 20,000 years ago, cranial modification may have been a meaningful part of culture in southern Australia. The mythology of Australian aborigines today has been linked by researchers to extinct life, such as marsupial tapirs and lions. Predation by humans may be why the megafauna became extinct, leaving the oral tradition of their existence. The abundant evidence matching the criteria for behavioral modernity shows that the early Australians had a rich artistic and symbolic life.
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The Environmental Approaches domain activities will be best accomplished through effective partnership efforts to support the primary mission of the program. Activities often cross domains and grantees should connect goals and activities in all of the domains. The socioecological approach represented by the four domains aligns with Healthy People 2020 and national strategies to improve the quality of health care, reduce health inequities, and contain health care costs. Disparities are also associated with geographic location, education level, income, and other characteristics of populations that have systematically been disadvantaged. One of the four overarching goals of Healthy People 2020 initiative is "to achieve health equity, eliminate disparities and improve the health of all groups. For example, Epidemiology and Surveillance: Gathering and analyzing data to contribute to the knowledge base to support effective strategies to reduce and eliminate disparities in cardiovascular disease risks Environmental Approaches: Supporting approaches to address the social and physical environments in which individuals live, work, and play that are often drivers of health inequities Health Systems/Clinical Preventive Services: Assuring equity in the delivery of quality health care in a culturally and linguistically appropriate manner Community-Clinical Linkages: Assuring equity in access to culturally appropriate lifestyle programs and other community resources 1 U. It does not attempt to address the many aspects of program management that apply to all public health programs. Requirements Grantees must comply with the following: Designate a point of contact for this cooperative agreement. Develop, award, and monitor contracts for program services in a timely manner, including contracts with appropriate health care providers. Develop an accurate budget annually and monitor expenditures (per legislation and federal guidelines). Guidance Grantees are encouraged to use a variety of formats to ensure learning occurs, such as in-person trainings, webinars, and teleconferences. Grantees can provide training themselves, arrange for external trainers, or collaborate with other agencies or grantees to conduct trainings. Professional Development Content In general, professional development designed to develop skills rather than merely imparting information is most valuable. Hypertension measurement and control, including correct blood pressure measurement technique, medication adherence, appropriate use of self-measured blood pressure monitoring, and how to work with health care providers to improve control of hypertension. Grantees should provide additional professional development opportunities, as needed to implement their proposed activities. A two-part objective under Program Management is suggested: one for grantee personnel and one for health care providers, contractors, and other partners, as appropriate. Project Officers will provide guidance annually on any required meetings that should be included in budgets. The rescreening visit should be an integrated office visit to the extent possible. Guidelines assist clinicians and patients in making decisions, but do not take the place of clinical judgment. A cover letter with two signatures (the signature of the Principal Investigator and the signature of the Business Office Official). If the request includes a budgetary request for a contractor, include the following: Name of contractor Method of selection Period of performance Scope of work Method of accountability Itemized budget with justification for each line item 4. If the information listed above is not available, the grantee should indicate "to be determined" until the information becomes available. Change in Program Manager/Director, Principal Investigator or other key staff or their absence if more than 3 months 2. Change in program scope or objectives, regardless of whether the budget is affected 3. Transferring substantive programmatic work by contracting or any other means to a third party 4. Carryover of unobligated funds from one budget period to another within an approved project period 5. Publication and printing costs exceeding $25,000 for a single publication when not included in the originally approved budget 8. Redirecting more than 25% of the total amount awarded, or $250,000, whichever is less Required Reports and Other Documents Annual Performance Report*: Grantees must submit the Annual Performance Report via The report should include budget information, performance measures, evaluation results, an updated work plan, successes, and challenges. Final Performance and Financial Report: Grantees must submit a final report to include a final financial and performance report. This report is due 90 days after the end of the project period (by September 28, 2017). Use no more than 40% of cooperative agreement funds for activities/ services that do not directly benefit the woman.
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Medical Supplies and Equipment o Cleaning versus Disinfecting Cleaning removes soil, dirt, dust, organic matter, and certain germs such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi. Cleaning is done so that dirt can be lifted off surfaces and then rinsed off with water. If any supplies are suspected of being contaminated, those supplies must be discarded according to the facility protocol. All re-usable medical supplies/equipment should be properly disinfected before and after use with each resident. The following equipment should be wiped down with an alcohol pad before and after each use with a resident: o Thermometer (even when using a thermometer cover). The supplies/equipment should also be properly stored to reduce direct and indirect 97 contact with potential contaminants. Any part of the equipment that came in contact with a potential contaminant should be wrapped in a plastic bag and taken to the appropriate location for proper sanitation. Different concentrations of bleach or other disinfectants may be necessary depending on the type of outbreak or communicable disease/infection in the facility. To prepare a 1:100 bleach solution: Bleach solutions should always be prepared in a well-ventilated area. It is especially important that protective eye wear is worn to prevent bleach from splashing in your eyes. In order to prepare a 1:100 bleach solution, mix ј cup of bleach with one gallon of water. The bleach solution must be prepared fresh daily and the old bleach solution should be discarded. The equipment shall be rinsed thoroughly prior to being returned to 99 the building to prevent bleaching carpet, etc. These containers are constructed to prevent the leakage of fluids when handling, transporting, or storing medical waste. Medical waste containers are always labeled with a biohazard label and are placed in a locked area inaccessible to residents and visitors. Any item containing blood or that comes in contact with bodily fluid during routine. Where medical waste is present during an emergency, the following items must be used: Gloves. These can be used to clean up bodily fluid or cover an area 100 containing bodily fluid until it can be properly cleaned. The red bags shall be tightly tied then transported to the biohazard area and placed in the medical waste bin or other area where the medical waste bin is stored. Mop heads used to clean bodily fluid or blood should be placed in a red bag, tied, and placed in the contaminated materials bin in the biohazard area. The mop bucket used shall be cleaned according to the equipment protocol stated in this chapter. Resident Room and Facility Cleanliness o Special utility gloves should be worn when cleaning resident rooms to protect the staff from cleaning chemicals. Any area that has come in direct or indirect contact with bodily fluids or contaminated material must be properly disinfected immediately. The following protocol should be used when cleaning, handling, and transporting soiled laundry (clothes) and bedding (linens): Gloves and other personal protective equipment should be used at all times while handling soiled linen. As soon as the soiled items come in contact 102 with a new surface, that surface is now contaminated as well. Any soiled linens should be bagged in a laundry bag or large trash bag in location of the linen. The linen should be doublebagged if necessary to prevent leaking of the contaminated linen during transportation to laundry services. Soiled linen should not be placed on surrounding furnishings including the floor, chairs, or counters. This will prevent contamination of the surrounding air and contaminating the person holding the linen. The soiled areas should be rolled so they are inside the clean areas of the linen. This can be accomplished by writing this information on a piece of paper and inserting it into the bag prior to transporting it to the laundry room.
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The tendency now is to use all available information, including single test day records, records from cross-bred animals, and a wide geographical range (across countries). Significant difficulties associated with the use of increasingly complex models are a lack of robustness (especially when population size is limited) and computational problems. The challenge today is to develop tools to systematically validate the models used. Methods for unbiased estimation of (heterogeneous) variance components with large data sets have been developed. A wide variety of nonlinear mixed models have, therefore, been proposed: threshold models, survival models, models based on ranks, Poisson models, etc. The selection intensity reflects the proportion of animals that are needed as parents for the next generation. Reproductive capacity and techniques have an important influence on the number of parents that are needed for the production of the next generation, and thereby on the rate of genetic improvement. In poultry, high reproductive capacity means that about 2 and 10 percent of the male and female candidates, respectively, are retained as parents. In general, there is less information about the younger age classes than about older age classes. Consequently, the accuracy of estimates of breeding value is lower in the younger generations. Selection across age classes to obtain the highest selection differential is recommended (James, 1972). This will change the proportion of parents selected from the younger age classes, and therefore also influence the average generation interval. Thus, generation interval is primarily a result of selection among the available age classes. Molecular genetics Molecular genetics in livestock has been subject to extensive study during the last two decades. These studies are related to gene-based selection of Mendelian traits (mainly diseases and genetic defects), marker assisted selection and introgression. Furthermore, molecular information is increasingly used to assist breed conservation programmes and to improve understanding of the origin and domestication of livestock. In pigs, the best-known gene which has so far been used in commercial breeding is the "halothane" gene. A (recessive) gene a natural mutation, called the "halothane" gene was found to be responsible for this defect. Genetic susceptibility to scrapie is strongly modulated by allelic variations at three different codons in the sheep PrP gene (Hunter, 1997). Breeding for scrapie resistance has, therefore, been considered an attractive option for the control of this disease (Dawson et al. As described in Part 1 Section F: 4, breeding programmes to eliminate scrapie can pose a threat to rare breeds that have a low frequency of the resistant genotype. Most economically important traits in animal production are of a quantitative nature and are affected by a large number of genes (loci), a few of which have major effects, while the majority have small effects (Le Roy et al. In other cases, a chromosomal region close to the gene of interest may be identified and used as a marker. Mixed models of inheritance, which assume one or several identified segregating loci, and an additional polygenic component, have been developed. When genotypes at each identified locus are known, they can be treated as fixed effects in standard mixed-model techniques (Kennedy et al. When only genotypes at linked markers are known, the uncertainty resulting from unknown haplotypes and recombination events has to be taken into account (Fernando and Grossman, 1989). Extra genetic gain is usually to be expected if information on genes with medium to large effects is included in the genetic evaluation process. Conversely, some discrepancies have been obtained for long-term response to selection see Larzul et al. In less favourable situations where only genotypes at linked markers are known, results largely depend on the particular circumstances. Large gains can be expected when linkage disequilibrium exists at the population level (Lande and Thompson, 1990), and when traits are difficult to measure.
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Above a certain population size the risk of such an outcome can be regarded as small (see below for discussion of the thresholds used in various risk status classifications). The more rapidly a population builds up to reach the critical size, the less it is exposed to the risk of extinction. Obviously, if population figures are low and the growth trend is negative, the prospects for the breed are not good. A complicating factor is that breed population growth rates often show considerable fluctuations over time, particularly where production conditions cannot be strictly controlled (Gandini et al. Calculating the probability that the population size will lie within a given range at a given time in the future is, thus, fraught with theoretical and data-related difficulties. Despite such problems, current population trends are clearly a factor to be considered in assessing risk status. In addition to overall population size and growth rates, the risk status of a population is affected by other factors such as the number of herds, and the geographical concentration of the population, which influence exposure to threats such as disease epidemics; and by sociological factors such as the age of the farmers keeping the breed (Woolliams, 2004). The preference was for a breed risk status classification based on the concept of Ne, adjusted by trends in population size, extent of cross-breeding, extent of cryoconservation, and variability of family size. However, data limitations and the necessity of a consistent approach on a global scale meant that a simpler approach was adopted, based on the number of breeding females and males, and trends in population size (see below for details). In the future, as more complete data become available it may be possible to refine the method of calculation to account for the above factors, and also to adapt it to account for the different generation intervals of different species. For planning and prioritization purposes, it is useful to classify breeds into risk status categories. A paper presented at the Expert Consultation in 1992 argued that a population size between 100 and 1 000 breeding females "implies that the breed is in danger of extinction. Without action its effective population size is inadequate in most cases to prevent continuing genetic loss in future generations. An increase in the degree of inbreeding is unavoidable and threatens the vitality of animals. Further, a population size of less than 100 breeding females indicates that "The population is close to extinction. At this level of threat, the genetic variability is often already reduced so that the population cannot be considered the same as the ancient breed" (ibid. Extinction is absolute when there are no breeding males (semen), breeding females (oocytes), nor embryos remaining. Breeds are classified into one of five categories according to F50: not endangered, <5 percent; potentially endangered, 515 percent; minimally endangered, 1625 percent; endangered, 2640 percent; and critically endangered, >40 percent. Breeds may be shifted to a higher risk class based on a set of additional risk factors: a high rate of incrossing with other breeds; a downward trend in the number of breeding females; or a low number of breeding herds (ibid. Separate thresholds are established for each species: cattle 7 500, sheep 10 000, goats 10 000, equidae 5 000, pigs 15 000 and avian species 25 000. Other factors (number of breeding units, number of unrelated sire lines, population trends, distance between major breeding units), which would ideally be included in an estimation of risk status, are disregarded in the interests of avoiding excessive complexity in the calculations (ibid. Criteria for the recognition and prioritisation of breeds of special genetic importance. Monitoring animal genetic resources and criteria for prioritization of breeds, by K. Defining livestock breeds in the context of community-based management of farm animal genetic resources, by J. Indigenous practices of animal genetic resource management and their relevance for the conservation of domestic animal diversity in developing countries. The process also includes the systematic documentation of the information gathered so as to allow easy access. Characterization activities should contribute to objective and reliable prediction of animal performance in defined environments, so as to allow a comparison of potential performance within the various major production systems found in a country or region. This primary assessment (baseline survey2) of breed/population status is based on information on: population size and structure; geographical distribution; within-breed genetic diversity; and the genetic connectedness of breeds when populations are found in more than one country. If a breed/population is not as risk, no immediate steps to implement conservation measures are necessary. Nevertheless, as part of national livestock development plans, decisions have to be taken as to whether a genetic improvement programme is needed in response, for example, to changing market conditions. Decisions regarding such improvement programmes are mainly guided by information on long-term benefits to livestock keepers and society.
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Portage is now working with Compute Canada on a set of requirements for a production platform, which would also integrate access and discovery as well as preservation. The focus for the next two years is on digital preservation and enhanced data discovery mechanisms, with an emphasis on building and improving open-source tools to enable curation and preservation of research data in Canada. As a result, the tool not only incorporates best practices in data stewardship, it also provides an easy-to-follow workflow that walks researchers through key questions about data management. Such plans typically identify how researchers will address data security, metadata production, file formats, file handling conventions, data sharing practices, data dissemination methods, and arrangements for long-term preservation. For this reason it has been challenging at times to move forward with infrastructure development. Regardless, significant strides have been made and collaborations have been key to success in Canada to date. A project is underway to accomplish this for the Harvard-based open-source Dataverse software, where Scholars Portal staff are code contributors and are working on internationalizing the code (a project of interest to a number of other countries around the world as well). For example, the Universitй de Montrйal in Quйbec has undertaken translation of the user interface text from English into French. Once this work is complete, this code may become part of the public Dataverse codebase and available to Dataverse instances around the world. We anticipate that many projects of this nature will be undertaken under the umbrella of the Portage network. Together, it is hoped, these will come together to form the needed infrastructure for managing and preserving research data on a national level. Libraries are seeing new opportunities to engage with their communities and with one another. Along with these new opportunities inevitably come challenges, such as costly digital infrastructure that must be managed on an ongoing basis. A number of approaches to research data management infrastructure have been explored in Canada to date, but no one approach holds all the answers. The Portage project has great potential to meet some significant unmet needs but will need sustainable funding in order to be successful. The development of open-source tools, infrastructure, and support services for research data management is crucial if Canadian scholars are to successfully integrate these new activities into their workflows. While formal funder require- Collaborative Research Data Curation Services 97 ments for data management planning or data sharing are not yet established in Canada, consultations are underway and requirements are expected. Academic libraries have a history of supporting data access, dissemination, and preservation as well as an established mandate to participate in the preservation of the research outputs of their community. In Canada, the library community has been extremely active in encouraging research data sharing, going back as far as the 1960s, and is well positioned to play a leadership role going forward. Assessing the Value of the Canadian Data Liberation Initiative," Bottom Line 17, no. Ernie Boyko and Wendy Watkins, the Canadian Data Liberation Initiative: An Idea Worth Considering? Chuck Humphrey, "Collaborative Training in Statistical and Data Library Services," Resource Sharing Information Networks 18, no. Bryan Heidorn, "Shedding Light on the Dark Data in the Long Tail of Science," Library Trends 57, no. Leach, National Consultation on Access to Scientific Research Data: Final Report (Canada: Task Force for the National Consultation on Access to Scientific Research Data, 2005). Michael Steeleworthy, "Research Data Management and the Canadian Academic Library: An Organizational Consideration of Data Management and Data Stewardship," Partnership 9, no. Erin Forward, Amber Leahey, and Leanne Trimble, "Shared Geospatial Metadata Repository for Ontario University Libraries: Collaborative Approaches," New Review of Academic Librarianship 21, no. Wayne Johnston, "Digital Preservation Initiatives in Ontario: Trusted Digital Repositories and Research Data Repositories," Partnership 7, no. Mercи Crosas, "The Dataverse Network: An Open-Source Application for Sharing, Discovering and Preserving Data," D-Lib Magazine 17, no.
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It gives information to the body about what is happening inside and outside of the body. Although vision and hearing are discussed below, a more thorough explanation, including discussions regarding disease states and more specific changes will be thoroughly discussed in Chapter Five: Residents with Disabilities and Special Conditions. Vision o Changes associated with vision as we age: About 95% of older adults report that they need glasses. It becomes less transparent and denser, causes changes in the way we see certain colors and makes it harder to see in dim light. Changes in the retina cause problems in seeing contrast and general depth perception. May not see the contrasts between certain colors, like gray with a blue background. They may "misstep" in areas they cannot see well, especially stairs or inclines/declines. In rooms with a lot of windows, be aware of the light and glare and if it is bothersome to residents. With printed materials, use high contrast amongst colors like a light yellow and black, large type font, etc. Encourage the resident to wear eye glasses and use magnifiers and to see his or her optometrist annually and more often if needed. Provide "talking books" and other audio material Use contrasting colors to assist in recognition of objects and foods. Use descriptive words to describe specific items and use comparative terms ["bright red about the size of a quarter"]. Hearing o Changes in hearing are related to lifetime noise exposure as well as aging. More trouble hearing conversations in places where there is a lot of background noise. Instructor Demonstration Instructor Demonstration Proper Body Positioning Instructor Notes: the purpose of this demonstration is to show the students the proper positioning when communicating with a resident. Ask one of the students to sit in one of the chairs and the instructor should sit in the other chair facing the student. Demonstrate to the student how to face the person, make eye contact, and speak clearly. Next, the instructor should turn his or her head away from the student and face the floor. Discussion: Ask the students if they noticed the difference in body positioning and sound of your voice, including sound quality. Discuss the feedback received from the 180 students and again stress the importance of proper body positioning and clear communication. Because they cannot taste sweet or salt very well, they may want foods that are sweeter and saltier. This can be dangerous because people may not feel pain as much or may not sense that things are hot. In other words, if you are generally an optimistic, happygo-lucky person when you are young, you will likely continue to be that as you get older. If a person experiences bad health, loss of function or independence with aging, she or he may need to find ways of coping with his or her losses. They may work hard to 182 overcome these disappointments and come to peace with them. It is important to give older adults time to adjust to life in assisted living and recognize that this may take awhile. These changes may cause depression and anxiety, or perceived changes in personality. For example, an older adult who can no longer walk without help may be very frustrated and take this out on people trying to help him or her. Coping with the changes related to aging is an adjustment process and every person handles it differently. For example, a loss of mobility may be upsetting to one person, while vision loss may be frustrating to another. It is important to think about your own lifestyle and what physical abilities have the greatest meaning to you. Cognitive Changes with Aging o Many people fear changes in their minds as they age.