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Explain the ways in which the spine is adapted to carry out its biomechanical functions. Explain the relationship between muscle location and the nature and effectiveness of muscle action in the trunk. Providing the mechanical linkage between the upper and lower extremities, the spine enables motion in all three planes, yet still functions as a bony protector of the delicate spinal cord. To many researchers and clinicians, the lumbar region of the spine is of particular interest because low back pain is a major medical and socioeconomic problem in modern times. Proceeding from superior to inferior, there are 7 cervical vertebrae, 12 thoracic vertebrae, 5 lumbar vertebrae, 5 fused sacral vertebrae, and 4 small, fused coccygeal vertebrae. Because of structural differences and the ribs, varying amounts of movement are permitted between adjacent vertebrae in the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar portions of the spine. Cartilaginous end-plate Intervertebral disc Intervertebral foramen with nerve root vertebrae and the soft tissues between them are known as a motion segment. The vertebral bodies separated by the intervertebral discs form a symphysis type of amphiarthrosis. The right and left facet joints between the superior and inferior articular processes are diarthroses of the gliding type that are lined with articular cartilage. The neural arches and posterior sides of the bodies and intervertebral discs form a protective passageway for the spinal cord and associated blood vessels known as the vertebral canal. The spinous and transverse processes serve as outriggers to improve the mechanical advantage of the attached muscles. The first cervical vertebra, known as the atlas, provides a reciprocally shaped receptacle for the condyles of the occiput of the skull. The atlantooccipital joint is extremely stable, with flexion/extension of about 14­15° permitted, but with virtually no motion occurring in any other plane (17). A large range of axial rotation is provided at the next joint between the atlas and the second cervical vertebrae, the axis. Motion at the atlantoaxial joint averages around 75° of rotation, 14° of extension, and 24° of lateral flexion (17). There is a progressive increase in vertebral size from the cervical region down through the lumbar region (Figure 9-3). The lumbar vertebrae, in particular, are larger and thicker than the vertebrae in the superior regions of the spine. This serves a functional purpose, since when the body is in an upright position each vertebra must support the weight of not only the arms and head but all the trunk positioned above it. The increased surface area of the lumbar vertebrae reduces the amount of stress triangular stack of articulations, with symphysis joints between vertebral bodies on the anterior side and two gliding diarthrodial facet joints on the posterior side. The orientation of the facet joints determines the movement capabilities of the motion segment. Bifid spinous process Lamina Vertebral foramen Superior articulating surface Transverse foramen Transverse process Cervical vertebra Spinous process Transverse process Facet that articulates with rib tubercle Superior articulating process Vertebral foramen Facet that articulates with rib head Body Lamina Pedicle Body Thoracic vertebra Lamina Spinous process Superior articulating process Transverse process Vertebral foramen Pedicle Body Lumbar vertebra to which these vertebrae would otherwise be subjected. The weight-bearing surface area of the intervertebral disc also increases with the weight supported in all mammals (129). The size and angulation of the vertebral processes vary throughout the spinal column (Figure 9-4). This changes the orientation of the facet joints, which limit range of motion in the different spinal regions. In addition to channeling the movement of the motion segment, the facet joints assist in load bearing. The facet joints also sustain up to approximately 30% of the compressive loads on the spine, particularly when the spine is in hyperextension (Figure 9-5) (72). Recent studies suggest that 15­40% of chronic low back pain emanates from the facet joints (11). Intervertebral Discs the articulations between adjacent vertebral bodies are symphysis joints with intervening fibrocartilaginous discs that act as cushions. Healthy intervertebral discs in an adult account for approximately one-fourth of the height of the spine. When the trunk is erect, the differences in the anterior and posterior thicknesses of the discs produce the lumbar, thoracic, and cervical curves of the spine.

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Urine - Routine urinalysis - Colour - Characteristics - amount, odour, transparency - Reaction (pH) - Specific gravity (sp. Clinical analysis: blood Examination Chlorides Potassium Sodium Cholesterol (varies with age) Circulation time (arm-tongue) Creatinine Erythrocyte sedimentation rate Female: 15 mm/h Fasting blood sugar Glucose tolerance test (at 1-1+ and 2 h) Lee White clotting time Phosphorus Protein bound iodine Proth rombin time Serum glutamic oxalacetic transaminase Creatinine clearance Uric acid Venereal disease research laboratory (Wasserman) Lactodehydrogenase Cortisol - 8:00 a. Abdominoperineal resection resection of the rectum and anus, with formation of a permanent colostomy. Colectomy left (Mikulicz procedure) removal of a portion of the colon in a multiple-stage operation with resection of tumour. Hysterectomy, complete, and bilateral saipingo-oophorectomy removal of the entire uterus, cervix, tubes and ovaries. Laminectomy removal of the posterior arches of the vertebrae in order to expose the spinal cord. Mastectomy, radical removal of a breast, all of the axillary contents, the pectorails minor and major muscles. Pelvic exenteration removal of all pelvic viscera, hysterectomy, cystectomy with colostomy, and ureteral transplant. Pilonidal cyst, excision of removal of a pilonidal cyst (a cyst containing hairs behind the anus). Prostatectomy, retropubic removal of the prostate anteriorly without going through the bladder. Prostatectomy, suprapubic removal of prostate above the pubis and through the urinary bladder. Prostatectomy (transurethral resection) removal of obstructing tissue in small portions by means of an electrotome introduced into the urethra. Example of exeresis procedures: Neuroexeresis operation of tearing out of a nerve; synonym = neurexairesis 17. Examples of introduction procedures: Myelography a gas or a radiopaque liquid is injected into the subarachnoid space, usually in the lumbar area. Pneurnoencephalography visualization of the brain after injection of air or gases into the ventricles (Ventriculography). Retrograde aortography insertion of dye through a catheter intoabdominai aorta via the femoral artery. Pneumothorax artificial introduction of air into the pleural cavity to produce pulmonary collapse. Cystoscopy and retrograde pyelography cystoscopy and radiography of the renal pelvis and ureter through dye introduced into catheters in the ureter. Medical Terminology Course 57 Oesophagoscopy direct visualization of the oesophagus through the oesophagoscope. Others include: Bronchoscopy, Gastroscopy, Otoscopy, Peritoneoscopy, Proctoscopy, Rhinoscopy, Thoracoscopy, Tracheoscopy, Urethroscopy. Grafts, skin skin which is detached from its original position and transplanted to another part of the body. Salpingoplasty and implantation re-establishment of the patency of the fallopian tubes. Tracheloplasty repair of the cervix in which there is laceration or erosion (2) Desis Example: Epiphysiodesis repair of epiphysial separation due to injury. Orchiopexy, Orchidopexy, Orchiorrhaphy suturing of an undescended testicle in the scrotum. Example of destruction procedures: Phrenic nerve operation when the phrenic nerves are divided, crushed, or injected paralysis of the corresponding side of the diaphragm is produced. Bones: Parietal Occipital Frontal Temporal Mandible Cervical vertebrae Thoracic vertebrae Lumbar vertebrae Sacrum Ilium Ischium Scapula Clavicle Humerus Radius Ulna Carpus Metacarpus Patella Tibia Fibula Tarsus Calcaneus Because all physicans rely heavily on accuracy and baseline data, a sound knowledge of radiological terminology is essential. Clitoriditis Metrorrhagia Oophorectomy Orchidectomy Salpingectomy Spermicide Uteropexy Definition I 80 Medical Terminology Course Reproductive system medical terminology Dictionary homework Word abortion amenorrhoea amitosis areola atrophicus bulbouretral cavernous cervix uteri clitoris corpora cavernosa corpus luteum dysmenorrhoea ectopic pregnancy endometrium epididymis estrogen fertilization fimbria foreskin gamete gonad Graafian follicle hymen hyperplastic inguinal labia lactation menorrhagia menopause menstruation metrorrhagia mons pubis myometrium nulliparous ostium abdominale ovary oviduct ovulation ovum parainetrium penis perineum prepuce progesterone prostate Meaning Medical Terminology Course 81 Word puberty scrotum semen seminal vesical spermatozoa testis tunica vaginalis uterus vagina vas deferens vestibule vulva zygote Meaning Endocrine system assignment Root Carotis Gone Pinea Pituita Thymos Thyreos Galact Mamma Mastos Thel Meaning Carotid Gonad Pineal Pituitory Thymus Thyroid Milk Breast Breast Nipple Example Carotid gland Gonadotrophic Pmealopathy Pituitrin Thymectomy Thyroadenitis Galactemia Mammary gland Mastitis Thelalgia Definition Endocrine system medical terminology Dictionary Homework Word androgen cachexia cell rests chromaffin cortex diabetes endocrinology estrogen exophthahnos gastrin. Prefix Ab Apo De Ad Arnbi Amphi Meaning))From, away from) Example Abduction Apoplexy Detract Adrenal Ambidextrous Arnpitheatre Meaning of example 2. To, near, toward Both)) On) both Ainphogenic Anabolism Antenatal Precancerous Prognosis Antispasmodic Contraindication Counterbalance Catabolism Circumference Pericardium Co-ordination Compound Congenital Symbiosis Synarthrosis Diaphoresis Percutaneous Transhepatic Diarthrosis Disarticulation Enucleate Eczema Exhale Ectopic Exogenous Extravasation Empyema Encapsulated Impacted Inspiration sides 5. Ampho Ana Ante Pre Pro Anti Contra Counter Cata Circum Peri Co Corn Con Sym Syn Dia Per Trans Di Dis E Ec Ex Ect Exo Extra Em En 1m In Up, apart, across))Before)) 7. Epi Infra Hypo Sub inter Intro Meta Para Post Re Retro Re Super Upon)) Under) Between into Change Beside After Again) Endocardium Entopic Intravenous Epicondyle Inframamary Hypodermic Subelavian Intercostal Introduction Metaplasia Paranasal Postoperative Recurrence Retroflexion Relapse Superimpose Backward 26.

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Poorly demarcated nuclear region situated anterior to the posterior ventral nuclei; its function is unclear. The lateral part of the posterior ventral nucleus that receives the medial lemniscus and spinothalamic tract and relays their impulses to the postcentral gyrus via the thalamocortical tract. Nuclei that occupy the posterior portion of the thalamus; they begin at the habenulae, receive tributaries from the auditory and visual pathways as well as from other thalamic nuclei and are connected with the visual cortex, optic and acoustic control centers, and other structures. Disaggregated cell layer on the lateral surface of the thalamus between the external medullary lamina and internal capsule. Field H lies medial to the zona incerta and in front of the red nucleus, H1 between the thalamus and zona incerta, H2 between the zona incerta and subthalamic nucleus. Continuation of the tract from the posterior funiculus radiating into the posterolateral ventral nucleus. Outwardly visible connection between the inferior colliculus and the medial geniculate body. Portion of auditory pathway extending from the medial geniculate body to the transverse temporal gyn. It passes through the occipital part of the posterior limb of the internal capsule. Externally visible connection between the superior colliculus and the lateral geniculate body. It passes through the occipital part of the posterior limb of the internal capsule and around the posterior horn of the lateral ventricle to the area striata. Fibers of the anterior nucleus passing to and from the cingulate gyrus and likewise reciprocal connections between the lateral nucleus and frontal lobe. Reciprocal fibers passing fan-like through the posterior limb of the internal capsule from the posterior lateral, anterior ventral, lateral ventral and posterior ventral nuclei to the pre- and postcentral gyri in addition to the connecting fields of the cortex. They lie in the occipital region of the posterior limb of the internal capsule and contain fibers from the lateral geniculate body (optic radiation) and the pulvinar for the occipital lobes and adjacent regions. It arises from the cerebellum and radiates into the thalamic fasciculus and to the lateral ventral nucleus. It lies below the thalamus, next to and above the zona incerta in field H1 and is composed of the ventricular fasciculus, ansa lenticularis and fibers from the cerebellum. Fiber tract extending from the mamillary body to the anterior nucleus of the thalamus. According to some anatomists, it consists of fibers of the pulvinar from and to the occipital lobes and its vicinity, as well as fibers of the auditory tract. Two fiber bundles from the lentiform nucleus to the ventral nuclei of the thalamus. One part passes around the anterior margin of the internal capsule (ansa lenticularis); the other part passes through the internal capsule. Fiber tract connecting the thalamus and claustrum, thereby extending between the lentiform nucleus and the amygdaloid body. Fibers coursing beneath the ependyma of the third ventricle between the medial nucleus and the hypothalamic nucleus to enter the posterior longitudinal fasciculus. Group of nuclei located beneath the anterior commissure and along the lamina terminalis with projections to the stria terminalis, medial telencephalic fasciculus and medial thalamic nuclei. Nucleus lying above the optic chiasm with neurosecretory fibers (oxytocin and vasopressin) projecting to the posterior pituitary. Group of autonomic nuclei with neurosecretory fibers (oxytocin and vasopressin) projecting to the posterior lobe of the hypophysis. They lie superiorly near the base of the hypothalamic sulcus and behind the anterior hypothalamic nucleus. Located behind the preoptic nucleus with projections to the hemispheres, stria terminalis and thalamus, its efferent fibers communicate with motor and autonomic nuclei. Area separated from the medial hypothalamus by the fornix, mamillothalamic fasciculus and medial telencephalic fasciculus. It is occupied by the lateral preoptic nucleus and the supraoptic nucleus including its lateral portion. D Brain 303 1 2 2 3 1 3 4 5 6 A Radiation of thalamus 7 8 9 10 5 6 10 11 4 9 12 13 14 B Ansa et fasciculus peduncularis 10 9 15 16 304. This nucleus belongs to the group of tuberal nuclei and, like them, controls the release of regulating hormones for the anterior lobe via the hypophysial stalk. It lies near the apex of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus and has similar functions.

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The shape of both oars and paddles suggests that they also can behave as hydrofoils. In rowing, for example, the propulsive forces generated are a combination of both lift and drag components and not just drag. If this is forwards at any time when the oar is submerged, the drag is in the wrong direction to provide propulsion. Consider, for example, a ball moving through a fluid, and having backspin as in Figure 5. The top of the ball is moving in the same direction as the air relative to the ball, while the bottom of the ball is moving against the air stream. The rotational motion of the ball is transferred to the thin boundary layer adjacent to the surface of the ball. On the lower surface of the ball, the boundary layer is moving against the rest of the fluid flow, known as the free stream. This increases the velocity difference across the boundary layer and separation still occurs. The resulting wake has, therefore, been deflected downwards, as can be seen in Figure 5. For a ball with backspin, the force acts perpendicular to the motion of the ball ­ it is a lift force. The lift force generated can even be sufficient to cause the initial ball trajectory to be curved slightly upwards. The lift force increases with the spin and substantially increases the length of drive compared to that with no spin. The main function of golf ball dimples is to assist the transfer of the rotational motion of the ball to the boundary layer of air to increase the Magnus force and give optimum lift. In cricket, a spin bowler usually spins the ball so that it is rotating about the axis along which it is moving (its velocity vector), and the ball only deviates when it contacts the ground. If the foot is moved from right to left as the ball is kicked, the ball will swerve to the right. Slicing and hooking of a golf ball are caused, inadvertently, by sidespin imparted at impact. A negative Magnus effect can also occur for a ball travelling below the critical Reynolds number. This happens when the boundary layer flow remains laminar on the side of the ball moving in the direction of the relative air flow, as the Reynolds number here remains below the critical value. On the other side of the ball, the rotation increases the relative speed between the air and the ball so that the boundary layer becomes turbulent. The wake will be deflected upwards, the opposite from the normal Magnus effect discussed above, and the ball will plummet to the ground under the action of the negative lift force. Reynolds numbers in many ball sports are close to the critical value, and the negative Magnus effect may, therefore, be important. They are usually very large and of short duration compared to other forces acting. These forces can be positive biologically as they can promote bone growth, providing that they are not too large; large impact forces are one factor that can increase the injury risk to an athlete. An example of an impact force is shown by the force peak just after the start of the landing phase (C) in Figure 5. Impacts involving sports objects, such as a ball and the ground, can affect the technique of a sports performer. For example, the spin imparted by the server to a tennis ball will affect how it rebounds, which will influence the stroke played by the receiver. Impacts of this type are termed oblique impacts and involve, for example, a ball hitting the ground at an angle of other than 90°, as in a tennis serve, and a bat or racket hitting a moving ball. The effects of those surroundings, which for the runner are weight and ground reaction force, are represented on the diagram as force vectors. Statics is a very useful and mathematically simple and powerful branch of mechanics. It is used to study force systems in which the forces are in equilibrium, such that they have no resultant effect on the object on which they act, as in Figure 5. In this figure, the buoyancy force, B, and the weight of the swimmer, G, share the same line of action and are equal in magnitude but have opposite directions, so that B = G.

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To achieve agreement, adjectives are declined by the first, second, or third declension. First and second declension Singular Nominative Genitive a) -us -i -a -ae -um -i Examples: longus longa longum Plural Nominative -i -ae -a Genitive -orum -arum -orum Gender masc. Third declension a) for consonant stems Singular Nominative Genitive -is -s -is Examples: major majus Plural Nominative -es -a Genitive -um -um Gender m+f neuter majoris majoris majores majora majorum majorum m+f neuter Terms: anterior, anterius; inferior, inferius; minor, minus; posterior, posterius; superior, superius, etc. Oryctolagus cuniculus (or) Ruminantia (Ru) Carnivora (Car) Bos taurus (bo) Felis catus (fe) Ovis aries (ov) Canis familiaris (ca) Capra hircus (cap) Ungulata (Un) Equus caballus (eq) Sus scrofa domestica (su) Terms in parentheses designate anatomical variations. As terms of direction, used on the neck and trunk and on the limbs proximal to the carpus and tarsus. These terms cannot be generally applied to quadrupedis because of the confusion arising from their meaning in human anatomy. This term refers to the back or dorsum of the tail, trunk, neck, and to the corresponding dorsal surface of the head. A dorsal plane is parallel to the dorsal surface of the body or part, and perpendicular to the median and transverse planes. The former term, frontal plane, because it refers to the plane of the human forehead, is not applicable to quadrupeds. It is convenient to use these terms on the digits and also on Metacarpus and Metatarsus of species in which the functional axis of the limb passes between the third and fourth digits as in Artiodactyla and Carnivora. Vola is no longer in use because it refers both to the hollow of the hand and the hollow of the sole of the foot. These nomenclatures are listed in a limited number, and consist of the fundamental terms which are used in the Veterinary Anatomy (including Veterinary Histology and Embryology). A Mamma is one human breast, or in domestic mammals, the glandular complex associated with one Papilla mammae. Uber, the Latin term for udder, designates all the Mammae collectively in the Ruminantia and horse. This is the part of the pelvis dorsal to the level of the Tuber ischiadicum known commonly as the croup or rump. It includes the thick epidermal covering, the dermis, and th e subcutaneous cushion, or Pulvinus. A Torus carpeus is present in Carnivora and in the horse, but in the latter it lacks a Pulvinus and is called the chestnut. Among the domestic mammals, only the horse has a Torus tarseus, also called the chestnut. Torus metacarpeus and Torus metatarseus are well developed in Carnivora, but in the horse they are reduced to the small horny spur (ergot) which may be designated Calcar metacarpeum and Calcar metatarseum. A Paradigitus is a digit that does not reach the plane of support of the other digits. When no Phalanx is present, the horny structure is a Paraungula in Ruminantia and a Paraunguicula in Carnivora. In large domestic mammals, owing to the length of the spinous processes, this region forms a high ridge, the withers. Because the muscles dorsal to the Tuber ischiadicum in domestic mammals are not named Mm. Regio articulationis metacarpophalangeae would be more accurate, however this term is too long. The Metaphysis is the flared end of the Diaphysis where calcified cartilage is replaced by bone. The Cartilago physialis is the plate of growing and calcifying cartilage between the Epiphysis and the Metaphysis during growth. The Linea physialis is the radiopaque lamina of dense bone in the plane of fusion of the epiphysis and diaphysis ­ the vestige of the Cartilago physialis. The meaning of this term has been changed from that of previous editions to agree with current concepts in bone research. The Cartilago epiphysialis completely surrounds the Centrum ossificationis secundarium. It is histologically and functionally distinct from the Cartilago articularis and the Cartilago physialis. For comparative reasons this term can only be used for the opening between the Os temporale, Os basisphenoidale, and Os occipitale (formerly the Foramen lacerum orale of the pig and horse).

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The force­velocity relationship also does not imply that it is impossible to move a light load at a slow speed. Most activities of daily living require slow, controlled movements of submaximal loads. With submaximal loads, the velocity of muscle shortening is subject to volitional control. For example, a pencil can be picked up from a desktop quickly or slowly, depending on the controlled pattern of motor unit recruitment in the muscle groups involved. The force­velocity relationship has been tested for skeletal, smooth, and cardiac muscle in humans, as well as for muscle tissues from other species (33). The general pattern holds true for all types of muscle, even the tiny muscles responsible for the rapid fluttering of insect wings. Maximum values of force at zero velocity and maximum values of velocity at a minimal load vary with the size and type of muscle. Although the physiological basis for the force­velocity relationship is not completely understood, the shape of the concentric portion of the curve corresponds to the rate of energy production in a muscle. The force­velocity relationship for muscle loaded beyond the isometric maximum is shown in the top half of Figure 6-17 (44). Under eccentric conditions, the maximal force a muscle can produce exceeds the isometric maximum by a factor of 1. Achievement of such a high force level, however, appears to require electrical stimulation of the motor neuron (86). Maximal eccentric forces produced volitionally are similar to the isometric maximum (86). It is likely that this is true because the nervous system provides inhibition through reflex pathways to protect against the stronger a muscle, the greater the magnitude of its isometric maximum on the force­velocity curve. When the resistance (force) is negligible, muscle contracts with maximal velocity. As the load progressively increases, concentric contraction velocity slows to zero at isometric maximum. Elevated force production under eccentric conditions with volitional muscle activation is not a function of greater neural activation of the muscle, but appears to represent the contribution of the elastic components of muscle (46, 49). Research shows this type of training to be more effective than concentric training in increasing muscle size and strength (36). As compared with concentric and isometric training, however, eccentric training is also associated with delayed onset muscle soreness (40). In single muscle fibers, isolated muscle preparations, and in vivo human muscles, force generation is at its peak when the muscle is slightly stretched (66). Conversely, muscle tension development capability is less following muscle shortening (70). Both the duration of muscle stretch or shortening and the time since stretch or shortening affect force generation capability (29, 67). Within the human body, force generation capability increases when the muscle is slightly stretched. Parallel-fibered muscles produce maximum tensions at just over resting length, and pennate-fibered muscles generate maximum tensions at between 120% and 130% of resting length (25). Research indicates that following eccentric exercise there may be a slight, transient increase in muscle length that impairs force development when joint angle does not place the muscle in sufficient stretch (73). The stretch reflex then contributes to forceful tension development in these muscles. A muscle can perform substantially more work when it is actively stretched prior to shortening than when it simply contracts. It has been estimated that during running at a slow speed, the triceps surae complex stores 45 J of elastic energy in the first half of stance, with 60 J produced during the second half (35). Eccentric training enhances the ability of the musculotendinous unit to store and return more elastic energy (68). Muscle spindle activity has been shown to provide a brief but substantial facilitation of neural drive during volitional contraction following prestretch (81). Quarterbacks and pitchers typically initiate a forceful stretch of the shoulder flexors and horizontal adductors immediately before throwing the ball. The same action occurs in muscle groups of the trunk and shoulders at the peak of the backswing of a golf club and a baseball bat.

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In addition, only a small quantity (1% to 2%) of the total renal blood flow passes through the vasa recta. As a result, vasa recta circulation carries only a minute amount of the medullary interstitial solutes away from the renal medulla. Therefore, fluids pass through the distal convoluted tubules and collecting ducts essentially unchanged, and a dilute urine is excreted. As a result, the tubular fluid equilibrates with the interstitial fluids, and a concentrated urine is excreted. Objective I Su To describe the role of the kidneys in maintaining acid­base balance. The kidneys regulate acid­base balance by the secretion of hydrogen ions into the tubules and rvey the reabsorption of bicarbonate (fig. The net result is that hydrogen ions are retained, and bicarbonate ions are excreted. Stretch receptors in the bladder wall discharge impulses via sensory neurons to the sacral spinal cord. Parasympathetic nerve impulses stimulate the detrusor muscle and the internal urethral sphincter. The detrusor muscle contracts rhythmically, and the internal urethral sphincter relaxes. Urination can be prevented by voluntary contraction of the external urethral sphincter and by inhibition of the micturition reflex by impulses from brain centers. If the decision is to urinate, the external urethral sphincter is relaxed, and the micturition reflex is facilitated by impulses from brain centers. Neurons of micturition reflex centers are inactivated, the detrusor muscle relaxes, and the urinary bladder again begins to fill with urine. Voluntary inhibition of micturition requires the maturation of portions of the brain and spinal cord that is accomplished only after several years of life. Incontinence is the inability to retain urine in the urinary bladder, resulting in its continuous emptying. Incontinence may be caused by central or peripheral nerve damage, various urinary diseases, or tissue damage within the urinary bladder or urethra. Key Clinical Terms Acute renal failure A sudden loss of kidney function, usually associated with shock or intense renal vasoconstriction, that lasts from a few days to as long as 3 weeks. Chronic renal failure A progressive destruction and shrinking of the kidneys, which become incapable of producing urine. Early symptoms are polyuria and nocturia; later the patient develops weakness, insomnia, loss of appetite, nausea, acidosis, and azotemia. Because of the permanent damage, the options for sustaining life are hemodialysis or kidney transplantation. Tissue and urine samples are obtained for diagnosis and for detection of obstructions. Glomerulonephritis Inflammation of the glomeruli; generally caused by bacterial (streptococcal) infection elsewhere in the body. As toxins are given off by the streptococci, the antigen­antibody complexes accumulate in the glomeruli, producing the inflammation. If the infection is not treated, the glomeruli are replaced by fibrous tissue, and chronic renal disease may develop. Nephrolithiasis Renal (kidney) stones (tiny particles to large calculi) that form as a result of infections, metabolic disorders, or dehydration. They may cause obstruction and intense pain as they pass through the urinary system. Pyelography Intravenous injection of a radiopaque dye that permits x-ray examination of the kidney, ureters, and urinary bladder as the dye passes through the urinary system. Pyelonephritis Bacterial infection and inflammation in the renal pelvis, which, if not treated, spreads progressively into the calyces and tubules of the nephrons. Renal clearance the volume of blood plasma per minute that is cleared of a given substance. Urinalysis Measurement of urine volume (750 to 2000 mL/day), pH, specific gravity, protein, mucin, ketone bodies, bilirubin, glucose, blood cells, epithelial cells, and casts.

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Nerve impulses are relayed via the facial and glossopharyngeal nerves to the parietal lobe in the opposite side of the cerebrum. Otorhinolaryngologist one who specializes in the treatment of diseases or conditions of the ear, nose and throat. Parallel rays come to focus behind the retina due to a flattening of the globe of the eye or refraction error. Medical Terminology Course 21 Malignant melanoma (eye) a pigmented mole or tumour arising from the uveal tract. Food is absorbed, passes into the capillary bed in the digestive tract and is carried by the portal vein to the hepatic or portal circulation. Mastoiditis inflammation of the mastoid process, generally as an extension of otitis media. Myopia defect in vision so that objects can only be seen distinctly when very close to the eyes caused by elongation of the globe of the eye. Retinal detachment the retina detaches - usually due to haemorrhage behind the retina from disease or trauma. Retinoblastoma a tumour arising from the retinal germ cells, a malignant glioma of the retina. Strabismus the optic axes cannot be directed towards the same object due to lack of muscle coordination (squint). Heart muscle is supplied with blood from the coronary arteries that branch off from the aorta. The cardiac muscles of the atria are completely separated from the cardiac muscle of the ventricle by a ring of fibrous tissue at the atrioventricular groove. They pull on the chordea so that the valve flaps cannot be everted, therefore in health, blood can flow in one direction only. The right atrium receives blood from the body tissues with its oxygen supply diminished via the inferior and superior vena cava. This blood passes into the right ventricle which pumps it to the lungs via the pulmonary arteries to obtain a fresh oxygen supply. The blood received back from the lungs via the pulmonary veins passes via the left atrium to the left ventricle, which pumps it to the rest of the body via the aorta. In diastole, there is a period of relaxation 22 Medical Terminology Course Diagram 12: Pictorial representation of blood circulation Lungs Pulmonary arteries veins R. An electrocardiograph records the electrical changes in heart muscle caused by contraction and relaxation. Auricular systole causes the ventricles to be completely filled and stretched which is followed by ventricular systole when the semilunar valves are forced open and blood is ejected into the pulmonary artery and the aorta simultaneously. The semilunar valves close at the beginning of ventricular diastole, causing the second heart sound. Heart murmurs will be heard if blood is forced forward through narrowed valves or leaks backwards through incompetent valves. Beginning at the heart, the blood is pumped into elastic arteries, then to muscular arteries. From arteries the body has a system of arterioles like branches on a tree which end in capillaries which surround body cells. Venous blood is transferred back from the capillaries into venules which unite to form muscular veins that empty into the great veins and thence to the heart. Only from capillaries can blood give up food and oxygen to tissues and receive waste products and carbon dioxide from tissues. The wave of excitation spreads throughout the muscles of both atria which then contract. Contractions of skeletal muscles help to squeeze veins and move blood towards the heart Respirations act as a pump by the creation of negative intrathoracic pressure which creates a suctioning pull in the veins in the thorax, and the descent of the diaphragm increases the intraabdominal pressure which forces blood upwards in the abdominal veins. Congenital pulmonary stenosis born with a narrowing of the opening between the pulmonary artery and the right ventricle. Coronary occlusion a blockage of a coronary artery, cutting off blood supply to a portion of the heart. Dextrocardia location of the heart in the right hemithorax often with accompanying transposition of abdominal viscera.


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