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Further, in confronting the reality that gender is a social construction that is not locked into polar opposites of female and male but is a hub around which intersecting components about identity occur (Rauscher & Cooky, 2019), Fisher et al. The pressure for children to remain in their gender lanes is reflected in some research that shows the vulnerabilities of athletes who opt to participate in sports not historically marked for their gender. For example, in an analysis of data from Add Health (6,485 adolescents), participating in team sport was generally associated with lower suicidal ideation, but athletes who chose individual sports outside of gender norms (cheerleading for boys; wrestling for girls) were at higher risk for suicidal ideation (Gunn & Lester, 2014). Nearly one-third of girls (31%) expressed that appearance-related reasons were part of their motivation for their participation. Through focus group interviews with 78 Latina students between the ages of 12 and 17 years, gender-based teasing primarily from male peers but occasionally from female peers was identified as a barrier to their participation in sport and physical activity (Lopez, 2019). Culture & Multiple Identities In order to gain a full appreciation of the gender gaps that exist for girls and women in the U. In effect, not all female experience is the same, shaped as it is by cultural, ethnic, gender, political, national, racial, and religious identities as well as socio-economic status and sexual orientation, as examples (Krane, Barber, & Durah, 2018; Staurowsky, 2016). Girls in immigrant families report lower rates of sport participation than boys in similar families as many immigrant parents hold traditional attitudes towards gender roles (Sabo & Veliz, 2008; Thul, LaVoi, Hazelwood, & Hussein, 2016; Thul, LaVoi, & Wasend, 2018). Participation variations between girls and boys are likely driven by economic disparities, racial and ethnic differences, and family characteristics (Sabo & Veliz, 2008). In an analysis of physical activity disparities between heterosexual and sexual minority youth between the ages of 12 and 22 years using data from the U. Intolerance to gender non-conformity was identified as a key barrier to participation. Youth leaders felt that access to quality facilities/resources and equal treatment was more of a barrier to participation than did leaders from other areas of sport. Other factors identified as having a negative impact on participation included competing demands for time because of academics or other extracurricular activities. These runners also spoke to the isolation they felt in participating in a predominantly White sport, feeling at times like "they were an attraction on display. The issue of racial identity and the isolation African American female athletes participating on predominantly White teams is anticipated and shared by African American mothers. In a qualitative study of African American mothers, they too expressed concern about the attention that would be drawn to their daughters on White teams and their own discomfort being a minority parent (Perkins & Partridge, 2014). Focusing on increasing the rate of participation of African American girls in physical activity, Barr, Anderson, and Kramer (2018) found that effective programs were structured around family involvement. Effective programs also included "Culturally tailored strategies ranged from surface-level. Research on Muslim girls demonstrates that gender and religion intersect with family and community expectations in ways that enable involvement in physical education, recreation, and sport but also present challenges (Stride & Flintoff, 2017). Contrary to prevailing perceptions, Muslim girls serve as active agents in navigating physical activity spaces. Health & Safety Concerns While there is no question that participation in sport presents a multitude of benefits for girls and women that can last a lifetime, participation in any kind of activity can pose health and safety concerns. As a result, it is critical to be aware of vulnerabilities in the sport system that pose potential threats to female athletes and to be responsive to the needs of female athletes. In this section, we provide a broad overview of some of the most pressing concerns that female athletes face from a health and safety perspective. The work that has been done centers around exploitative and abusive behaviors targeting both female and male athletes by coaches that typically manifest in one of four forms: emotional abuse, neglect and bullying, physical abuse, and sexual abuse (Kavanugh et al. This section deals primarily with coach emotional and verbal abuse as well as neglect and bullying. Coaches often hold all of the power due to their ability to make choices about playing time, scholarships, team selection, and their ability to regulate access to training, facilities, and support staff (Brake, 2012; Bringer, Brackenridge, & Johnston, 2002). Because of the power imbalance and authoritarian nature of sport, scholars argue athletics is a prime climate for the abuse of athletes (Cense & Brackenridge, 2001; Kerr & Stirling, 2012; Stirling & Kerr, 2013). As Jacobs, Smits, and Knoppers (2017) also explain, coaches draw upon several rationales to justify treating elite youth athletes in ways that are objectively abusive but not seen as such by coaches. Coaches legitimize their mistreatment of athletes by explaining away their abuse and casting it as attempts at motivation and protection. Although the full magnitude of coach abuse is difficult to determine given the available research, in a 2011 study of 6,000 young people in the United Kingdom between the ages of 18 and 24 years, 75% of those responding indicated that they had experienced some form of coach abuse as a child while participating in youth sport (Alexander et al. A study in the United Kingdom found 73% of adolescent girls aged 11-18 years reported breast-specific concerns with their sport careers, indicating the onset of puberty as a barrier to physical activity (Scurr et al.
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Life expectancy at birth Number of years newborn children would live if subject to the mortality risks prevailing for the cross section of population at the time of their birth. Proportion of urban population Urban population as a percentage of the total population. Net migration rate the number of immigrants minus the number of emigrants over a period, divided by the person-years lived by the population of the receiving country over that period. Regional and global values are based on more countries and areas than listed here. Infant mortality rate Probability of dying between birth and exactly 1 year of age, expressed per 1,000 live births. Neonatal mortality rate Probability of dying during the first 28 days of life, expressed per 1,000 live births. Probability of dying among children aged 514 Probability of dying at age 514 years expressed per 1,000 children aged 5. Demand for family planning satisfied with modern methods Percentage of married/in union women (15-19 and 15-49) who have their need for family planning satisfied with modern methods. Antenatal care (at least one visit) Percentage of women (aged 1549) attended at least once during pregnancy by skilled health personnel (typically a doctor, nurse or midwife). Antenatal care (at least four visits) Percentage of women (aged 15-19 and 15-49) attended by any provider at least four times. Skilled birth attendant Percentage of births from mothers aged 15-19 and 15-49, attended by skilled heath personnel (typically a doctor, nurse or midwife). Institutional delivery Percentage of women (aged 1549) who gave birth in a health facility. Postnatal health check for newborn Percentage of last live births in the last 2 years who received a health check within 2 days after delivery. Postnatal health check for mother Percentage of women (aged 1549) who received a health check within 2 days after delivery of their most recent live birth in the last 2 years. Number of maternal deaths Number of deaths of women from pregnancy-related causes. Maternal mortality ratio Number of deaths of women from pregnancy-related causes per 100,000 live births during the same time period. Data collection method for this indicator varies across surveys and may affect comparability of the coverage estimates. Maternal mortality estimates are from the 2019 United Nations inter-agency maternal mortality estimates. Data refer to the most recent year available during the period specified in the column heading. Polio3 Percentage of surviving infants who received three doses of the polio vaccine. HepB3 Percentage of surviving infants who received three doses of hepatitis B vaccine. Hib3 Percentage of surviving infants who received three doses of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine. Rota Percentage of surviving infants who received the last dose of rotavirus vaccine as recommended. Care seeking for children with fever Percentage of children under five years of age with fever for whom advice or treatment was sought from a health facility or provider. In some countries, particularly non-malaria endemic countries, pharmacies have also been excluded from the calculation. World Population Prospects (2019 revision) estimates of target populations were used in the calculation of global and regional aggregates. World Population Prospects (2019 revision) estimates of the second year of life target population were used to calculate regional and global aggregates. Condom use among adolescents age 1519 with multiple partners Percentage of adolescents aged 15-19 who had more than one sexual partner in the past 12 months reporting the use of a condom during their last sexual intercourse.
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Malabsorption alabsorption is a problem where the food that is eaten is not properly digested and absorbed into the body. People with malabsorption often have diarrhoea that is watery and large in volume. They also have distended/bloated stomachs, cramps, weight loss and undigested food in their stools. People often try and compensate for this by spending large amounts of money on health food and multivitamin supplements but these things pass right through, just like the original food. Therefore you need to deal with the root of the problem which is fear, anxiety and stress in your thought life. To understand malabsorption, I recommend that you turn to page 178 to gain a background understanding of the effects of long term fear, anxiety and stress on your body before reading this section any further. The physical mechanism for malabsorption is similar to constipation described above: the nervous system in your brain consists of 2 parts: the sympathetic nervous system (fight or flight) this is what is active during stage 1, 2 and 3 of stress the parasympathetic nervous system (rest and digest) - this is the part of the nervous system that is active when you are at rest or when you relax, eat and digest your food. When the sympathetic nervous system is activated, it suppresses the activity of the parasympathetic nervous system and vice versa. When you are perpetually in a stressed state, the sympathetic system is overactive. The reason for this is that the sympathetic nervous system (stress reaction) was meant for emergencies. There is no time to eat and digest food in a danger situation so your brain diverts blood away from your stomach and intestines towards more important organs like your heart, brain and muscles. M « 508 » Specific Diseases Fear and anxiety also causes something called cell membrane semi-rigidity (this is explained under the heading "Toxic Retention" in the chapter I initially referred you to on page 186). Normally, the digested food is absorbed into your blood stream through the lining of your gut which is semi-permeable membrane. However, the sympathetic nervous system, which is over active during stage 2 and 3 of stress, causes the cell membranes that line your gastrointestinal tract to become rigid. You can be healed of malabsorption by getting the fear, anxiety and stress out of your thought life. This is because you will no longer be in stage 2 and 3 of stress and therefore the balance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system will be restored. The cell membranes lining your gut will become permeable again and your gastrointestinal tract will serve you as God originally designed it to. Irritable Bowel Syndrome I rritable bowel syndrome is one of the most common gastrointestinal problems that we as doctors see in general practice. A large proportion of patients with irritable bowel syndrome also have indigestion (dyspepsia), chronic fatigue syndrome, painful menstrual periods (dysmenorrhoea), urinary frequency (going to the toilet too often), headaches and poor sleep. All of these disorders, including irritable bowel syndrome are traced back to fear, anxiety and stress in your thought life. The medical professionals have noted that exacerbations of irritable bowel syndrome are linked with stressful life events, occupational dissatisfaction and difficulties with interpersonal relationships. Statistically from the secular medical community 75% of people with irritable bowel syndrome are females who were physically or sexually abused by their fathers and sometimes a husband. There is a fear 75% of people with irritable that comes from that abuse that leads to irritable bowel syndrome. Most people with irritable bowel syndrome alternate between episodes of constipation and diarrhoea. They also experience recurrent, colicky or cramping pain in the lower part of the abdomen which is relieved by defecation. To understand irritable bowel syndrome, I recommend that you turn to page 178 to gain a background understanding of the effects of long term fear, anxiety and stress on your body before reading this section any further. The walls of your intestines contract and relax as your food is mixed and digested and moved along your gut (this is called peristalsis). The sympathetic nervous system stimulates the walls of your intestines to contract and the parasympathetic nervous system stimulates it to relax. The fine balance between these two nervous systems helps you to digest your food efficiently. However in stage 2 and 3 of stress, the hypothalamus responds to the lack of peace upstream in your thought life by setting in motion an imbalance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. The physical mechanisms by which diarrhoea and constipation develop are explained previously in the chapter on pages 505 and 506. Irritable bowel syndrome can also follow an episode of gastroenteritis (infection and subsequent inflammation of the walls of your gut).
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Blackwomen,however,havepaidaheavypriceforthestrengthstheyhaveacquiredand the relative independence they have enjoyed. While they have seldom been "just housewives," they have always done their housework. They have thus carried the double burden of wage labor and housework-a double burden which always demands that workingwomenpossesstheperseveringpowersofSisyphus. The unorthodox feminine qualities of assertiveness and self-reliance-for which Black women have been frequently praised but more often rebuked-are reflections of their labor and their struggles outside the home. But like their white sisters called "housewives," they have cooked and cleaned andhavenurturedandreareduntoldnumbersofchildren. Butunlikethewhitehousewives, who learned to lean on their husbands for economic security, Black wives and mothers, usuallyworkersaswell,haverarelybeenofferedthetimeandenergytobecomeexpertsat domesticity. Like their white working-class sisters, who also carry the double burden of workingforalivingandservicinghusbandsandchildren,Blackwomenhaveneededrelief fromthisoppressivepredicamentforalong,longtime. Child care should be socialized, meal preparation should be socialized, housework should be industrialized-and all these servicesshouldbereadilyaccessibletoworking-classpeople. The shortage, if not absence, of public discussion about the feasibility of transforming housework into a social possibility bears witness to the blinding powers of bourgeois ideology. There is even a movement in a number of capitalistcountries,whosemainconcernistheplightofthehousewife. Havingreachedthe conclusionthathouseworkisdegradingandoppressiveprimarilybecauseitisunpaidlabor, this movement has raised the demand for wages. The Wages for Housework Movement originated in Italy, where its first public demonstration took place in March, 1974. It is the strategic demand; at this moment it is the most revolutionarydemandforthewholeworkingclass. Herrole in the cycle of production remained invisible because only the product of her labor, the laborer, wasvisible. If the industrial revolution resulted in the structural separation of the home economy from the public economy, then housework cannot be defined as an integral component of capitalistproduction. The employer is notconcernedintheleastaboutthewaylabor-powerisproducedandsustained,heisonly concerned about its availability and its ability to generate profit. Black men are viewed as labor units whose productive potential renders them valuable to the capitalistclass. In accordance with South African law, unemployed Black women are banned from the white areas (87 percent of the country! The consolidation of African families in the industrialized cities is perceived as a menace becausedomesticlifemightbecomeabaseforaheightenedlevelofresistancetoApartheid. In such hostels, family life is rigorously prohibited- husbands and wives are unable to visit one another and neither mother nor father can receivevisitsfromtheirchildren. South African capitalism thus blatantly demonstrates the extenttowhichthecapitalisteconomyisutterlydependentondomesticlabor. ThedeliberatedissolutionoffamilylifeinSouthAfricacouldnothavebeenundertaken by the government if it were truly the case that the services performed by women in the homeareanessentialconstituentofwagelaborundercapitalism. Thatdomesticlifecanbe dispensedwithbytheSouthAfricanversionofcapitalismisaconsequenceoftheseparation of the private home economy and the public production process which characterizes capitalistsocietyingeneral. Assumingthatthetheoryunderlyingthedemandforwagesishopelesslyflawed,mightit not be nonetheless politically desirable to insist that housewives be paid. Forhowmanyofthose women would actually be willing to reconcile themselves to deadening, never-ending householdtasks,allforthesakeofawage? Is it not an implicit critique of the Wages for Housework Movement that women on welfarehaverarelydemandedcompensationforkeepinghouse. Not"wagesforhousework" but rather "a guaranteed annual income for all" is the slogan articulating the immediate alternativetheyhavemostfrequentlyproposedtothedehumanizingwelfaresystem. Theguaranteed annual income functions, therefore, as unemployment insurance pending the creation of morejobswithadequatewagesalongwithasubsidizedsystemofchildcare. The experiences of yet another group of women reveal the problematic nature of the "wagesforhousework"strategy.
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There is a gene for every chemical and enzyme that is involved in each step of the cholesterol metabolism described above. The devil is able to alter our body chemistry and genetics through sin in our thought life. As a result the receptor or recognition chemical that is made from these muddled up instructions is defective and does not work properly. There are over 700 different defects that have been identified that occur in this gene so far! As a result of this defective gene, the receptors that are made are dysfunctional. Therefore the cholesterol starts to accumulate in the blood vessels, which eventually causes disease. There is also a gene defect that results in a defect in the enzyme (lipoprotein lipase). There is so much cholesterol that the receptors on the body cells cannot remove it all. The consequence is accumulation of high levels of cholesterol and fats in the blood. However, I hope that you can now see how genetic defects lead to abnormal cholesterol metabolism, and why avoiding fatty foods is not really the issue. However this person also has another problem diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, obesity (weight gain due to excessive over eating) and/or alcoholism. Whenever you see the word "syndrome" in the name of a disease, it means a cluster of symptoms or disorders that have been noted to occur together. When you are attacking yourself spiritually through thoughts of self-hatred, self-rejection, a low selfesteem, guilt and condemnation, you release the spirit of death and the spirit of infirmity to agree with you. Your brain is eventually going to convert those thoughts into a physical reaction. Jesus said if you hate your brother in your heart, it is the same as committing murder (1 John 3 v 15). Likewise, when you hate yourself, in essence you are murdering yourself in your thoughts. Through the mind-body connection the body will eventually conform to this image and will respond to this by "murdering itself". That is exactly what happens with high cholesterol, diabetes and hypertension in Metabolic Syndrome. This is also very accurate medically because the blood contains oxygen, nutrients and energy needed to keep body cells alive. Therefore by damaging the heart and blood vessels you cut off the blood supply you cut off the life you kill off the body tissue: Diabetes: Part of the diseases process in diabetes involves deposition of material called hyaline on the blood vessel walls. In the advanced stages of diabetes, patients often have to have their toes, feet and lower legs amputated because of gangrene. When a part of the body becomes gangrenous, it has to be amputated, otherwise the gangrene will quickly spread, killing the « 478 » Specific Diseases person. Apart from heart failure, other common complications of high blood pressure are: Heart attacks - a heart attack is when the heart stops working because the blood supply to the heart muscle is cut off. If the area that controls the movement of your left arm and leg is damaged, your left arm and leg will be paralyzed. High Levels Of Cholesterol: there is strong evidence from medical research that has linked high levels of cholesterol with the development of a disease called atherosclerosis. As it builds up to the lining it reaches out and other cholesterol hits it and attaches to it. It eventually forms a plaque which becomes thicker and thicker until it completely occludes the blood vessel. When this happens in the blood vessels supplying the legs, the person experiences what is called intermittent claudication. This is intermittent painful cramps in the legs after the person walks a certain distance (for example 200 metres). This is because the leg muscles are running out of oxygen and energy due lack of blood supply. The cholesterol lumps can also cause strokes by blocking the blood vessels supplying the brain tissue. The only way to permanently lower your cholesterol levels and prevent the above complications is to deal with the toxic mindsets causing it.
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If yes: type of protection worn, leakage composition, leakage duration, and frequency 82 Chapter 8 Pelvic organ prolapse Although there are anecdotal reports of pelvic organ prolapse in young, nulliparous marathon runners and weight lifters, there are few studies on pelvic organ prolapse in exercising women. They were also significantly more likely to have worsening in their pelvic support regardless of initial prolapse stage. However, in the latter study, only 47% of the participants reported high acceptability for tampon use. For smaller leakage, specially designed protecting pads can be used during training and competition. One would assume that the elite athletes would respond in the same way to treatment as other women do. If the pelvic floor possesses a certain "stiffness," it is likely that the muscles could counteract the increases in intraabdominal pressures occurring during physical exertion. The leakage in athletes seems to be related to strenuous highimpact activity, and elite athletes do not seem to have more urinary incontinence than others later in life when the activity is reduced. Preventive devices and absorbing products Devices that involve external urinary collection, intravaginal support of the bladder neck, or blockage of urinary leakage by occlusion are available, and some have shown to be effective in preventing leakage during physical activity. This was supported by a recent study in Bladder training Anecdotally, most elite athletes empty their bladder before practice and competition, which was also reported to be common in young nulliparous women attending gyms. Therefore, it is unlikely that any of them would exercise with a high bladder volume. However, as in the rest of the population, elite athletes may have a nonoptimal toilet behavior, and the use of frequencyvolume chart and bladder training regimens may be an important Exercise and pelvic floor dysfunction in female elite athletes 83 first step to become aware of toilet habits and try to make them more optimal. Estrogen the role of estrogen in incidence, prevalence, and treatment of stress urinary incontinence is controversial. Two metaanalyses of the effect have concluded that there is no change in urine loss after estrogen replacement therapy. Estrogen given alone therefore does not seem to be an effective treatment for stress urinary incontinence. A higher prevalence of eating disorders has been found in athletes compared with nonathletes, and these athletes may be low in estrogen. Amenorrheic elite athletes would be on estrogen replacement therapy because of the risk of osteoporosis. Estrogen may have adverse effects such as a higher risk of coronary heart disease and some cancer forms. Cure rates, defined as 2 g of leakage on pad tests, vary between 44 and 70% in stress urinary incontinence. All improved subjectively and showed normal readings on urodynamic assessment after treatment. Elite athletes are accustomed to regular training and are highly motivated for exercise. Therefore, thorough instruction and assessment of ability to contract is mandatory. Because most elite athletes are nulliparous, there are no ruptures of ligaments, fascias, muscle fibers, or peripheral nerve damage. One would expect that the effect would be equal or even better in this specific group of women. The rationale behind a strengthtraining regimen is to increase muscle tension and crosssectional area and increase stiffness of connective tissue, thereby lifting the pelvic floor into a higher pelvic position and reduce the levator hiatus area. It is a functional and physiological noninvasive treatment with no known serious adverse effects, and it is costeffective compared with other treatment modalities. None have compared the effect of these lifestyle interventions with untreated controls, and there is no report of adherence to these protocols. Hence, the effect of lifestyle interventions on pelvic organ prolapse is still unknown. Conclusion the prevalence of urinary incontinence and especially stress urinary incontinence among young, nulliparous elite athletes is high. The highest prevalence rates were found in those involved in high impact activities such as trampolining, gymnastics, track and field, and ball games. Both urinary and anal incontinence is perceived as embarrassing, and it may influence performance especially in sports where incontinence is visible or hearable. There is scant knowledge about the prevalence of pelvic organ prolapse in female athletes.
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As we have also pointed out, however, there are several fundamental differences between allopathic and osteopathic education and practice. Figure 1-3: Osteopathic Student Enrollment by by Sex Figure 1-3 Osteopathic Student EnrollmentSex (2014) (2014) Female 10,934 (44%) Male 13,681 (56%) Table 1-3. Allopathic Osteopathic (2014) Men Women 56% 44% Allopathic (2014) 53% 47% References 1. Fast Facts about Osteopathic Medical Education: Preliminary Enrollment Report - Fall 2014. Do Osteopathic Physicians Differ in Patient Interaction from Allopathic Physicians? Awareness and Use of Osteopathic Physicians in the United States: Results of the Second Osteopathic Survey of Health Care in America. Figure 1-3 and Table 1-3: American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine. The four major tenets of the osteopathic medical philosophy are listed and briefly explained below: 2, 3 1. The body is completely united; the person is a fully integrated being of body, mind and spirit. Each separate part is interconnected with all others and serves to benefit the collective whole of the person. Health is the natural state of the body, and the body possesses complex, homeostatic, self-regulatory mechanisms that it uses to heal itself from injury. In times of disease, when a part of the body is functioning sub-optimally, other parts of the body come out of their natural state of health in order to compensate for the dysfunction. Osteopathic physicians must work to adjust the body so as to realign its parts back to normal. The structure of a body part governs its function, and thus abnormal structure manifests as dysfunction. Rational treatment is based on an understanding of these three aforementioned principles. These basic osteopathic tenets permeate all aspects of health maintenance and disease prevention and treatment. The osteopathic physician examines, diagnoses, and treats patients according to these principles. Andrew Taylor Still1 T here are two main distinctions between osteopathic and allopathic physicians. The other, more subtle and arguably more important distinction between the two professions is that osteopathic medicine offers a concise philosophy on which all clinical practice is based. Central to this philosophy is the belief that the body has an inherent healing mechanism that allows it to maintain health, resist illness, and recover from disease processes. The history of the osteopathic profession is central toward understanding the current state of osteopathic medicine and is thus taught as part of the osteopathic medical school curriculum. In fact, osteopathic medical students are often tested on the history and philosophy of osteopathic medicine, and are encouraged to integrate osteopathic teachings into their approach as clinicians. Osteopathic medicine was born in a time when many different approaches to medicine existed, some of them more rational than others. Indeed, common medical practices during this era included bloodletting and pharmacological use of toxic chemicals such as mercury and arsenic. Most of the drugs that are widely available today either had not been discovered or were not commonly recognized in Dr. For example, Bayer did not patent aspirin until 1899, and it was not until 1935 that the first antibiotics (Sulfa drugs) became widely available. Homeopathy, one of the largest of these alternative schools, rejected common medical practice and instead based its remedies on empirical pharmacology and the concept of "like cures like," which stated that a drug whose physiological effects were most aligned with those of a particular disease could then be used to treat said disease. Perhaps also surprising is the fact that medical doctors during this time did not receive four years of schooling at an established medical school like they do today. Usually they were trained first through apprenticeship under a licensed physician. Some would then elect to study in a medical college where they received brief schooling (frequently two years, the second being simply a review of the first). During his apprenticeship, he treated Native American patients in the Kansas Territory. Later, he attended medical school at the College of Physicians and Surgeons in Kansas City, Missouri, but only completed his first year of schooling due to his frustration with the redundancy of medical education at the time.